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北京第二外国语学院学报  2020, Vol. 42 Issue (1): 96-110    DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.265
外语教学研究     
语法填空任务中的策略参与有声思维实证研究
常新萍
中山大学外国语学院,510275
Strategies and Patterns in Processing a Grammar-completion Task
Xinping Chang
School of Foreign Languages, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
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摘要:

自20世纪90年代起,语言测试任务中的策略参与一直是一个重要话题,然而长期以来,对策略在不同任务类型下参与的过程追踪研究仍显贫乏。本研究通过运用有声思维数据采集方法,对不同学习阶段的两组参试者在基于语篇的语法填空任务中的策略使用情况进行了质性分析与量化手段相结合的调研。研究分析了四类典型策略使用及两组学生在处理该任务时的策略选择差异,并归纳出了三种不同效果的语篇处理模式。研究结果一方面为深入理解该任务考测内容的性质和范围提供了实证材料,另一方面为探寻高效语篇处理模式提供了个案例证。本研究对外语学习、测试和教学过程的反思与改进均有一定的参考意义。

关键词: 策略语篇处理模式有声思维语法填空语言测试高考    
Abstract:

Tracking EFL users’ strategy employment in performing language test tasks has been a serious concern in language testing since the early 1990s. However, in-depth, process-oriented research is still limited in this line of inquiry. This paper details an investigation into the strategies employed and the patterns exhibited by two groups of Chinese EFL users when processing a text-based grammar-completion task in a think-aloud experiment. Four general types of strategies have been identified, and differences in the frequency and type of strategy use were found among the two groups. An in-depth analysis revealed three typical text processing patterns with different levels of efficacy for the task. Among these, two patterns (M1 & M2) were deemed to be more efficient for task completion. The third (M3)—which could possibly be affected by learning behaviour—was found to have a debilitating effect on learners’ task performance. Textual-level backtracking, logical analysis of unit coherence, retrieval of formulaic expressions, structural analysis, and multi-strategy interactions were identified as playing important roles within efficient text processing and task accomplishment. These findings not only attest to the validity of text-based grammar-completion tasks in NMET and deepen the understanding of Chinese EFL language users’ problem-solving habits as influenced by their learning behaviour, but also demonstrate an exemplary case for exploring efficient text-processing models.

Key words: strategy    text processing pattern    think-aloud    grammar-completion task    language testing    the college entrance examination
收稿日期: 2017-06-13 出版日期: 2020-05-06
PACS:  H319  
作者简介: 常新萍,中山大学外国语学院,510275,研究方向:语言测试、应用语言学、二语习得、语用学。电子邮箱:flscxp@mail.sysu.edu.cn
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引用本文:

常新萍. 语法填空任务中的策略参与有声思维实证研究[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2020, 42(1): 96-110.

Xinping Chang. Strategies and Patterns in Processing a Grammar-completion Task. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2020, 42(1): 96-110.

链接本文:

https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12002/j.bisu.265        https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2020/V42/I1/96

One morning, I was waiting at the bus stop, worried about __41__ (be) late for school. There were many people waiting at the bus stop, __42__ some of them looked very anxious and __43__ (disappoint). When the bus finally came, we all hurried on board. I got a place next __44__ the window, so I had a good view of the sidewalk. A boy on a bike __45__ (catch) my attention. He was riding beside the bus and waving his arms. I heard a passenger behind me shouting to the driver, but he refused __46__ (stop) until we reached the next stop. Still, the boy kept __47__ (ride). He was carrying something over his shoulder and shouting. Finally, when we came to the next stop, the boy ran up to the door of the bus. I heard an excited conversation. Then the driver stood up and asked,“__48__ anyone lose a suitcase at the last stop?” A woman on the bus shouted, “Oh, dear! It’s __49__(I)”. She pushed her way to the driver and took the suitcase thankfully. Five others on the bus began talking about what the boy had done and the crowd of strangers __50__(sudden) became friendly to one another.
说明:10个填空处的参考答案为:(41)being,(42)and,(43)disappointed,(44)to,(45)caught,(46)to stop,(47)riding,(48)Did,(49)mine/me,(50)suddenly。该试题总分为15分,每题1.5分,满分为15分。
表1  实验材料信息表
图1  两组参试者围绕10个考点产生的关键语类型分布
图2  两组参试者在10个考点上的答对人次百分比
策略类型
项目
宏观策略 局部策略 综合策略 应试策略 总数
频次 131 408 226 8 773
人均频次 5.95 18.55 10.27 0.36 35.13
百分比 17% 53% 29% 1% 100%
表2  策略使用基本情况统计表
图3  两组参试者使用各类策略的人均频次对照
图4  两组参试者使用各类策略的人数比例对照
图5  语篇处理模式一(M1)
图6  语篇处理模式二(M2)
图7  语篇处理模式三(M3)
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