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北京第二外国语学院学报  2020, Vol. 42 Issue (5): 32-45    DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.299
外语教学研究(语言能力等级量表研究专栏 主持人:金艳)     
语言能力等级量表效度研究评述
李清华1(), 孔烁2()
1.南方医科大学外国语学院,广州 510515
2.山东水利职业学院,日照 276826
Research on Validity and Validation of Language Proficiency Scales: A Review
Qinghua Li1(), Shuo Kong2()
1. School of Foreign Studies, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
2. Shandong Water Conservancy Vocational College, Rizhao 276826, China
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摘要:

语言能力量表在国家语言战略和语言教育中发挥着重大作用,2018年发布的《中国英语能力等级量表》(CSE)已经成为社会和学界关注的热点。本文在对量表效度研究进行梳理后发现,现有研究大多仅围绕量表的测评用途展开。在理论探索方面,朱正才(2016)方绪军、杨惠中(2017)提出了各自的效度验证框架。两个框架均持分类效度观,但所用概念名称不尽相同,种类略有差别,各有优势和不足。在量表效度验证方面,已有研究主要集中在量表的解读和对接方面。在这些研究中,对学习者真实语言行为的描述多来自专家、教师和学生的主观判断,这些数据的可靠性有待验证。因此,笔者认为有必要在教育与心理测量和语言测试领域效度理论指导下,针对语言能力量表的特点,进一步整合量表效度验证框架。对已有量表的效度验证和新量表研发应从对语言使用者的调查转到基于大规模语言使用者语料库的研究上来。必须指出,CSE等国内外著名语言能力量表均定位为“标准”,而“标准”的语言能力量表是语言测试开发的基础,所以语言测试的效度理论在多大程度上适用于能力量表值得进一步讨论。

关键词: 语言能力等级量表语言测试语言教育效度验证中国英语能力等级量表    
Abstract:

Language proficiency scales have played a significant role in national language strategy and language education. Recently, China’s Standards of English Language Ability (CSE) has drawn much attention from academia and the whole society. This paper reviews the current studies on validity and validation of language proficiency scales. It is revealed that most research has focused on one function of the scales—assessment tools. In terms of validity theory of language scales, two frameworks proposed by Zhu (2016) and Fang & Yang (2017) are discussed. Both frameworks hold that validity can be classified into several kinds, but they understand validity in different ways and apply different concepts to refer to the same validity. Comparison of these frameworks shows that Zhu (2016) and Fang & Yang (2017) each have their advantages and disadvantages. As for the experimental studies, interpretations of developing the scales and aligning them to other scales and tests have attracted the most effort. Discussion on the theoretical and experimental research of language scales leads us to propose potential future directions. On the one hand, it seems necessary to integrate the two current frameworks into a new model of validation of language proficiency scales that considers scale characteristics under the guidance of validity theory acknowledged in the educational and psychological measurements and language testing. On the other hand, it is arguable that descriptors of learners’ real language behaviors should come from collecting and selecting real data from a large group of language users rather than the subjective judgment of experts, teachers, and students, mainly because the subjective evaluation might not be fully reliable. Furthermore, CSE and other well-known language scales all boast that they should be used as standards on which language tests can be developed. Therefore it is an open question to what extent validity theories of language testing can be applied to validating language scales.

Key words: language proficiency scales    language testing    language education    validation    China’s Standards of English Language Ability (CSE)
收稿日期: 2019-08-22 出版日期: 2020-10-30
PACS:  H319  
基金资助: 教育部人文社会科学研究项目“中国医学学术英语能力等级量表研究”部分成果(17YJA740021)
作者简介: 李清华,博士,南方医科大学教授,510515,研究方向:应用语言学。电子邮箱:lqhtesting@163.com
孔烁,山东水利职业学院,276826,研究方向:计算语言学。电子邮箱:reedandbicycle@gmail.com
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引用本文:

李清华, 孔烁. 语言能力等级量表效度研究评述[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2020, 42(5): 32-45.

Qinghua Li, Shuo Kong. Research on Validity and Validation of Language Proficiency Scales: A Review. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2020, 42(5): 32-45.

链接本文:

https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12002/j.bisu.299        https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2020/V42/I5/32

效度证据 《标准》 朱框架 方杨框架
内容 测试内容的代表性 公平效度 内容效度
反应过程 测试的构念与测试过程中受试实际心理过程之间的吻合程度
内部结构 测试特定维度的理据;试卷实际所测的维度与欲测维度的一致性 构念效度;
内容效度
构念效度
与其他变量的关系 收敛性(与相同或相似构念的其他测试的相关)和区别性(与其他不同构念测试的相关);与标准之间的关系 决策效度 效标关联效度
后效 测试实施后对测试有关方面产生的影响 教学反拨效度;社会影响效度 使用效度
表1  效度证据分类对比
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