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, Volume 41 Issue 6 Previous Issue   
Scholarly Forum
A New Perspective on Ambiguous Resultative Constructions in Chinese
Chensong Yan,Hong Liu
Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(6): 3-17.   https://doi.org/10.12002/j.bisu.250
Abstract( 14 )   HTML( 2 )     PDF(1790KB)( 13 )

The resultative sentences Baoyu qi-lei-le ma and Zhang San zhui-leile
Li Si have more than one possible meanings. A key concept in our new perspective on the Chinese resultatives is Theme, which refers to the argument that undergoes a change in state designated by R. According to the position of Theme in the sentence, the Chinese resultatives can be divided into two major categories: Cause Prominent Resultatives and Theme Prominent Resultatives. This is the basis on which ambiguous sentences are to be analyzed. Similar forms of resultatives afford more than one conceptual configurations. This is made possible by both the construction and the words used. The construction coerces the constituents, i.e., the verbs (adjectives) and nouns that enter into the construction, aligning their relationships therein and yielding the holistic event types of meanings. On the other hand, the syntactic and semantic properties of the words may also constrain the meanings of the whole construction. For example, the valency and semantics of the verb, as well as the animacy of the nouns, may affect the meaning expressed. Besides, the indeterminacy of a bare noun’s reference also plays a part in the meaning construction.

Linguistic Studies
Minimized Computations, Merge Operation and Parameterization within the Minimalist Framework
Lianwen Zhang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(6): 18-39.   https://doi.org/10.12002/j.bisu.256
Abstract( 50 )   HTML( 3 )     PDF(1862KB)( 26 )

Generating labeled hierarchical structures, the interaction of Merge with principles of minimized computations supports SMT (Strong Minimalist Thesis) theory. Based on projection theory, this paper focuses on the minimized computations of minimalist generative procedure, binary Merge operations and labeling mechanisms with interpretive relevance, together with linear cyclicity of phrases restricted to numeration/N-PF (phonetic form) interface mapping. It further addresses parameter setting patterns (complex sets of multiple modules, representations and complex movement rules) and their relevance to acquisition (projection problem), with reference to the Merge-based functional argument structure, and establishes the minimal structural distance (MSD) as the elementary computational (procedure complexity) problem. By investigating the relevance of parametric setting to functional categories and their features, this paper clarifies the visibility of merge labels in terms of labeling algorithm (LA). This article rigorously redefines the generalized cycles, extension condition (EC) and edge condition imposed on Merge by derivational cyclicity. Results indicate that language parametric differences (variations) can be attributed to Merge composition and labeling intensity. This article therefore sheds light on the nature of merge operations, labeling distinctions and interpretive effects, and particularly, clarifies the nature of minimized computations established by the labeling algorithm, phasal cyclic linearizations (CL) and multiple transfer under the economy principle. Demonstrating that merge and labeling are constrained by minimal search (MS), while head or endocentricity detection can be reduced to minimal search of lexical item (LI) for phase labeling, i.e., minimal head detection (MHD), this paper makes important contributions to the typological investigations of parameters.

A Study of the Multimodal Linguistic Landscape of Lanzhou International Marathon
Ruoqu Yang, Aiping Zhang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(6): 40-51.   https://doi.org/10.12002/j.bisu.260
Abstract( 22 )   HTML( 3 )     PDF(1578KB)( 17 )

Using the basic analytical method of linguistic landscape theory, this paper attempts to examine the linguistic landscape of the Lanzhou International Marathon by analysing its linguistic signs from the following four perspectives: their producers, their multimodal features, their functions and the power positions of different languages used. It is found that the private signs outnumber the official ones, suggesting that the marathon has attracted the attention of both the private and official sectors of the society. Both the private and the public signs employ multimodal modes widely, which suggests that multimodal signs are dominant and welcomed due to their novelty and variety. The number of the multimodal private signs is greater than that of the multimodal official signs, however, indicating the flexibility and creativity involved in their production. Language, image and colour are the three most frequently used multimodal modes, with language still serving as a major mode used to express meaning. Chinese is the overwhelmingly dominant language used in the signs while bilingual signs featuring Chinese and English account for a little over half of all the signs, clearly demonstrating the international features of the marathon and the local government’s expectation of building an international city, and yet a relatively low level of internationalization of the marathon and its host city. English-only signs are rarely used in the linguistic landscape of the Lanzhou International Marathon, which may mainly be attributed to limitations caused by some local language regulations. The functions of the linguistic landscape in the private signs and the official signs are significantly different; the official signs are more closely related to the delivery of information and publicity relating to the marathon while the private signs are mainly aimed at advertising the products of private sectors. The construction of this linguistic landscape reflects the principles of self-salience and power relationship.

Translation Studies
Translation Strategies and Transcultural Features of Vernacular Biblical Version (1874) by S.I.J. Schereschewsky
Yan Liu
Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(6): 52-67.   https://doi.org/10.12002/j.bisu.259
Abstract( 21 )   HTML( 1 )     PDF(1752KB)( 2 )

Translating the Old Testament into Chinese, S.I.J. Schereschewsky had greater impact than his missionary colleagues; drawing from a deep knowledge of biblical Hebrew, his translation illustrates impressive diversity, flexibility, adaptability. This article summarizes the translation strategies used by Schereschewsky. Valuing faithfulness to the meaning of the original text, Schereschewsky utilized a range of Chinese styles and dialects that would be meaningful to a variety of readers. Schereschewsky’s familiarity with Jewish commentary provided him with a deep understanding of the original texts, which he brought into his Chinese translation, and the notes section and his interpretations are important additions that aid comprehension for lay readers. His translation therefore not only reflects the translatability, readability and meaning of the scripture but showcases an intercultural dialogue between Judeo-Christian culture and traditional Chinese culture. Representing a hermeneutical and cross-cultural translation that connects Chinese classical traditions with Jewish interpretation of the Scriptures, this translation is part of an ongoing dialogue between these two ancient civilizations. Additionally, it can be seen from this translation that the sacred mission of translating the Bible into Chinese provided Schereschewsky with a sense of purpose and meaning in life; it was in China and in the Chinese Bible that Schereschewsky found refuge and salvation.

Text Selection in Literary Translation and the Construction of the Images of Chinese Women—A Study of the Anthologized English Translation of Chinese Women Writers by Chinese Literature Press after 1979
Wenhui Fu
Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(6): 68-82.   https://doi.org/10.12002/j.bisu.262
Abstract( 22 )   HTML( 1 )     PDF(1723KB)( 6 )

The Chinese Literature Press (CLP) was a government-sponsored project to translate texts by Chinese writers. This paper examines the selection criteria used by the CLP in translating texts by Chinese female writers after 1979. It highlights the project’s efforts in promoting a desired image of the contemporary Chinese woman and contributions of presenting a variety of images to the Anglophone world. It also discusses discrepancies between the ideal image that the project intended to promote and what was more likely conveyed. From an imagology perspective, this paper illustrates how the anthologies convey greater diversity in Chinese women than do Western stereotypes and from a gender perspective, how the representation of the ideal Chinese women diverges from that expected. Manifold and close-to-life images of Chinese women, in particular of working and of urban women, were illustrated as the CLP aimed to demonstrate the positive transition of women’s status following the founding of the People’s Republic of China. Paradoxically, some female figures in the anthologies still have a subordinating mentality in spite of their economic independence, reflecting the CLP’s ignorance within a male-centric ideology to the importance of women’s psychological freedom. This paper sheds light on literary Chinese to English translations and discusses ongoing concerns particular to the representations of females and the promotion of Chinese culture overseas.

On Translation Strategies of Hendiadys in Shakespeare’s Plays from Conceptual Blending Theory
Shijian Xie,Xiaoying Huang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(6): 83-94.   https://doi.org/10.12002/j.bisu.251
Abstract( 17 )   HTML( 1 )     PDF(1843KB)( 3 )

As a remarkable stylistic marker, hendiadys in Shakespeare’s plays usually elevates discourse and blurs its logic, however it is most congenial to Shakespeare’s purposes as he explored problematic depths of thought and feeling. Hendiadys derives its effect from its deviation from normal coordination patterns. More than a rhetorical device, hendiadys is an impressive cognitive method, however to date few studies have focused on hendiadys. With strong explanatory power, Conceptual Blending Theory (CBT) has been applied to rhetoric and translation studies in recent years. With the aim of decoding hendiadys’s semantic complexity, this paper applies Conceptual Blending Theory to hendiadys translation strategies. This paper takes Shakespeare’s plays and their cultural schemata as STS, Chinese expressions and its cultural schemata as TRS and the chosen Chinese versions (Zhu Shenghao, Liang Shiqiu, Sun Dayu and Bian Zhilin) as BTS. Then, based on four Chinese versions of Shakespeare’s plays, drawing from features of Shakespeare’s hendiadys, CBT and taking various projection methods into consideration, this paper suggests two translation strategies, i.e., semi-correspondence projection strategy and non-correspondence projection strategy, thus offering a new technique to research rhetorical devices in Shakespeare’s plays and corresponding translation strategies.

Foreign Literature Studies
Promotion and Renewal of Folk Life — Typological Comparison between Red Sorghum Family and Quiet Flows the Don
Xiaoyu Wang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(6): 95-105.   https://doi.org/10.12002/j.bisu.263
Abstract( 15 )   HTML( 2 )     PDF(1409KB)( 6 )

Sholokhov’s novel, Quiet Flows the Don, was profoundly influential on Mo Yan's creative work. Sholokhov and Mo Yan respectively deduced the folk customs of the Don Cossacks area and of the Northeast township of Gaomi into their respective novels, thus creating a unique style of masterpiece; Quiet Flows the Don and Red Sorghum Family represent true folk art. Their folk characteristics are embodied in three aspects: creative material, creative theme and creative language. As a descendant, in Red Sorghum Family Mo Yan demonstrated his effort to both learn from Russian literature and to break from its fetters. In Red Sorghum Family Mo Yan’s creative appropriation of Quiet Flows the Don is evident, which is the pursuit of a way more suitable for Chinese culture. This pursuit coincides precisely with Sholokhov’s efforts in Quiet Flows the Don, to realize the spirit of the Don River and Russian national character. “Folk things” and “foreign things” are both magic that only a brilliant writer can keep alive. The successful reference and breakthrough of Red Sorghum Family to Quiet Flows the Don provides a valuable creative experience for contemporary literature.

Foreign Language Education Research
An EAP Needs Analysis for Non-English Major Graduate Students
Jia Chen
Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(6): 106-119.   https://doi.org/10.12002/j.bisu.255
Abstract( 16 )   HTML( 2 )     PDF(1679KB)( 7 )

Nationwide, Chinese graduate students with diverse majors are required to study English to support their education and job prospects. However, to date little research has investigated the needs of these learners. This paper reports a needs analysis survey conducted with 271 non-English major graduate students with 263 valid questionnaires returned, aimed to inform the design of an effective English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course. Investigating these graduate students’ needs, difficulties, and English language study habits, 50 questions, mostly utilizing a 5-point Likert scale, comprised four dimensions: individual competence, learner motivation, learning process needs and learning environment needs. Results of this descriptive analysis revealed that most participants’ motivation for learning is primarily instructional. Most participants were dissatisfied with their general English competency and Listening and Speaking were reported to be their weakest language skills. They reported concern for their academic writing skills as well their academic listening and speaking abilities. In their demands for language courses, participants welcome both general English and EAP courses, whereas most prefer more interactive arrangements such as pair or group discussions, seminars and projects, in place of only teacher-centered lectures. Participants also expressed their desire for more authentic communication and learning materials. Recommendations are made for the design and delivery of an effective English-language course for general academic purposes, including suggestions for student-oriented, task or project based, interactive learning activities.

Book Review
Review of The Routledge Handbook of Interpreting
Juan Hu
Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(6): 120-128.   https://doi.org/10.12002/j.bisu.254
Abstract( 16 )   HTML( 3 )     PDF(1770KB)( 11 )

In recent years, interpreting studies have maintained great momentum against the backdrop of global language services. In 2015, Routledge Publisher published two works influential to interpreting studies: The Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies and The Routledge Handbook of Interpreting. First, this paper briefly introduces the researches presented in The Routledge Handbook of Interpreting, followed by some key insights drawn from its research perspectives, new frontiers and innovations. Specifically, the history of interpreting and the important internal and external players are issues unique to interpreting studies that are given voices here. New interpreting technologies, interpreting professionalism and the return of interpreting ethics are also highlighted as current research frontiers; besides, transcription, translation and child language brokering, which have rarely drawn concern from academic circles, also receive scholarly attention in these works. Overall, this paper provides a panorama of the core issues in interpreting studies and offers a variety of perspectives in order to promote discussion on some controversial issues and to stimulate future researches..

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