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Xunzi is Not a Chief Chinese Representative of Arbitrariness Theory: A Reflection Based on Embodied-Cognitive Linguistics
Wang Yin
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (2): 18-29.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.506
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The argument regarding iconicity and arbitrariness in language has a long history. The increasing popularity of Cognitive Linguistics and Embodied-Cognitive Linguistics has led scholars to widely accept the former. Following the introduction of Saussure’s concept of arbitrariness in his Structuralist Linguistics to our country, some scholars intended to find an ancestral sage for support, with Xunzi’s saying “there is no unique way of naming...” in the article “On the Correct Use of Names” being selected as evidence. This led to Xunzi being assumed to be a main Chinese representative of arbitrariness theory. However, after having studied and analyzed Xunzi’s article for years, we have found that this assumption is seriously misguided, as his article was a precursor of his early view of embodied cognition and iconicity that is currently proposed by Embodied-Cognitive Linguistics. In this paper, we attempt to criticize this misconception from five aspects in order to ensure a correct understanding of Xunzi. Thus, we propose the research principle “I think therefore I speak”.

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The Discipline of Foreign Languages and Literatures: Significant Changes and Their Profound Impact
Guo Yingjian
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (2): 3-17.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.505
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In January 2024, commissioned by the Degree Committee of the State Council, the Association of Chinese Graduate Education released the Introduction to Graduate Education Disciplines and Specializations and Their Basic Degree Requirements, which includes content related to the discipline of foreign languages and literatures, as well as disciplines related to them. There are significant changes from the past. In this paper, we will focus on analyzing the main content, specific connotations, practical significance, and the profound impact of these significant changes on the future construction of foreign language disciplines.

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On the Significance and Discipline Construction of Foreign Language Education
Xia Jimei, Wang Zhe
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (2): 30-38.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.507
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Foreign language education has been officially established as a subject in the national postgraduate syllabus since 2024. In this paper, the writers present their positive response to its significance by differentiating between foreign language education and applied linguistics. Based on their understanding of the theories and practice of foreign language education, this paper proposes some related thoughts about the development of teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) in China concerning the research methods, the approaches to teaching reform, the demands for teacher development, and the improvements to the quality of foreign language learners.

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Research on the Use of Translation Textbooks in the “Understanding Contemporary China” Series: Taking A Course in Chinese-French Translation as an Example
Liu Yunhong, Cao Danhong
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (2): 39-49.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.508
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Cultivating translation talents that meet the demands of the era has always been a central topic in the field of translation education. An important way to improve the quality of talent cultivation is improving textbook design. The translation textbooks in the “Understanding Contemporary China” series are clearly positioned, novel in concept, and scientific in design, providing a reliable basis and a strong support for teaching translation. How to use this series of textbooks scientifically and to maximize the textbooks’ role in fostering talent is undoubtedly an issue that should be investigated in the current cultivation of qualified translators. Taking A Course in Chinese-French Translation as an example, this paper attempts to reflect on the use of translation textbooks in the “Understanding Contemporary China” series from two aspects: the first is focusing on value guidance, grasping correct translation principles, and improving translation ability, while the second is implementing three-phase analysis-inquiry-interaction teaching model, with the aim of providing some constructive references for the cultivation of translation talent in the new era.

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Female Images and Identity Construction in Bessie Head’s Novel: A Case of The Collector of Treasures and Other Botswana Village Tales
Liu Yan, Zhou Anxin
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (2): 50-65.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.509
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Bessie Head (1937—1986) was a female Botswanan writer. In the short story collection The Collector of Treasures and Other Botswana Village Tales (1974), Head portrays different types of images of African female images, which I propose to research from the feminist perspective using postcolonialism theory, among other research approaches. It can be seen that there are three profiles of the diachronic extension of Botswanan women’s lives in Head’s short stories. The first involves rural female villagers who were affected by Botswana’s rural traditions and colonially oppressed communities in the conservative state of Botswana; the second refers to female prisoners who used violence as a weapon to fight against male domination in prisons and to escape colonial oppression in Botswana, and the third depicts the “new women” who participated in writing and the construction of identity in the beneficial aftermath of ideological edification in Botswana. In general, Head draws on images of women such as villagers, prisoners, and new women to depict these women’s unrelenting efforts and struggles of women in Botswana who were attempting to find themselves and to gain power in society. Head aims to build a stairway to the stars and to speak for silent African women through her autobiographical writing; in doing so she also constructed independent and creative female identities.

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Q Methodological Research in Applied Linguistics: A Systematic Review Based on PRISMA
Jiang Wei, Qin Lili, Du Shiqin
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (2): 78-94.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.511
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In recent years, mixed research methods have gradually attracted the attention of scholars in the field of applied linguistics, among which the Q method, as a mixed research method to explore human subjectivity, combines the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods, and examines subjectivity via objective measures at both holistic and individual levels. However, understanding the application of the Q method in this field is still in its infancy, and there are few relevant research results; empirical Chinese studies are particularly lacking. Therefore, in this study, we employ a systematic review by searching key literature databases in China and overseas and investigating Q methodological studies in applied linguistics. The researchers reviewed the current status of Q methodological research in terms of theoretical perspectives, research topics, as well as data collection and analysis characteristics. We have found that few Q methodological studies have integrated theories, and have a predominant focus on motivational themes, as the research topics encompass motivations, emotions, beliefs, curriculum evaluations, and the like. The data collection and analysis have revealed developmental trends ranging from synchronic to diachronic, intra-group to inter-group, or a combination of intra-group and inter-group. Finally, we propose future directions for Q methodological research based on existing research gaps with the aim of providing new insights for future studies.

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Investigating Ecolinguistics within the Stratification-Instantiation Matrix of Systemic Functional Linguistics
Liu Xiangdong
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (1): 130-141.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.503
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From a systemic functional perspective, this paper investigates the disciplinary nature, approaches, research subjects, and contents of ecolinguistics. A brief review of the discipline and a few comments on it are first provided. Then, the elements involved in ecolinguistics are reexamined within the stratification-instantiation matrix of the social semiotic system. It is concluded that these two dimensions can provide a reference system for the elements of ecolinguistics, which is defined as a kind of “appliable linguistics”, with the “appliability” of systemic functional linguistics being extended in its breadth and depth.

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English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education: Developing Scientific Literacy
Cai Jigang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (1): 19-28.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.495
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English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education (2022 Edition) postulates that cultural awareness is one of the key competencies for students. Although this is understandable, considering the critical role of scientific literacy in compulsory education, we suggest that the key competencies should include scientific literacy education, which is an active response to the government decision that the scientific literacy of young boys and girls should be greatly improved during the 14th Five-Year Plan. Scientific literacy is the basis of cultural awareness and cross-disciplinary studies. Without the fundamentals of scientific knowledge and methodology, youths will lack the intellectual tools and social responsibility needed for true cultural awareness. After analyzing the causes underlying the dearth of attention paid to scientific literacy education in compulsory and even higher education, we suggest reforms are needed in the development of teaching materials, the methodology of English instruction, and the organization of various scientific activities.

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Status Quo and Prospects of Language Education Management Research
Wang Lifei, Teng Yanjiang, Shao Shanshan
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (1): 29-44.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.496
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Language education management refers to management behavior in which the country, society, individuals, and other entities coordinate the allocation of language resources, solve language problems, achieve language education goals, and meet national strategies and individual development needs. China’s language education management is currently based on the Chinese context with a global vision. The system is composed of the national language, foreign languages, minority languages, and Chinese as an international language and is aimed at contributing to the goal of common prosperity, the realization of national harmony and unity, and the construction of a global community with a shared future for mankind. Accordingly, this paper analyzes the characteristics of language education management, reviews the status quo of language education management in China and internationally, and proposes a focus on the studies of the following areas within language education management: environment, technology, talents, and evaluation. The implications for building a language education management system with Chinese characteristics are also explored.

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Language Input and the Development of Language Ability in Language Acquisition: An Example of the Mother Tongue Acquisition Process of “Dongdong” in The Language Diary of a Chinese Girl in the Early Years of Life
Shu Dingfang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (1): 3-18.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.494
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According to universal grammar, in the process of children’s language acquisition, there are many deficiencies in language stimuli, but children are nonetheless able to develop grammatical abilities, indicating the existence of an innate language acquisition mechanism in the brain. This hypothesis has been challenged by cognitive linguists, who believe that children’s understanding and use of language is based on general cognitive abilities, especially memory, abstraction, and reasoning. In recent years, experiments have revealed that children have excellent memory, abstraction, and reasoning abilities. Abstraction helps children to grasp grammar rules and acquire constructions through daily exposure to language materials, while reasoning helps children to use existing knowledge to acquire new knowledge, thereby enhancing their expressive abilities. This paper examines the actual process of children’s language acquisition and suggests that the acquisition of children’s language abilities is closely related to the quality and quantity of language input. The sources of language stimuli that children receive are extensive, and their richness, specificity, and frequency far exceed the imagination of the general public. Moreover, children’s language abilities interact with their conceptual and thinking abilities. These conceptual abilities can promote the development of language abilities, which in turn can further promote the development of thinking abilities.

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Has Generative AI Opened a New Era for Machine Translation?— A Contrastive Quality Study and Reflections on Translation Education
Zhang Wenyu, Zhao Bi
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (1): 83-98.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.499
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The introduction of the generative artificial intelligence technology, has had an immediate and substantial impact on the mode of work of those involved in language content services, sparking a massive proliferation in its potential applications. In order to evaluate the performance of the Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) language model in translation practices, a translation quality assessment experiment combining automatic machine evaluation and manual evaluation was conducted. The results showed that the GPT language model does not constitute an iteration of machine translation technology in the field of translation but that it does provide a noticeable degree of quality improvement in Chinese-English translation, terminology translation, and literary translation, among other tasks. On this basis, some suggestions on how to respond to the changes brought by artificial intelligence technology to translation education are put forward.

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A Tentative Study of Foreign Language Teaching in the Context of Metaverse
Chen Jianlin, Qin Feng
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (1): 99-108.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.500
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The concept of metaverse has recently seen wider application in the innovation of various fields. However, it remains unclear how foreign language teaching research within the context of the metaverse would be carried out. This paper mainly explores this issue by outlining what the metaverse is and how it can be applied to foreign-language teaching research with the aim of stimulating further discussion on this subject. Other specific issues that are discussed include the origin and definition of the metaverse concept, the evolution of the human activity space, the development of the Internet, and the new form of foreign language teaching research in the context of metaverse.

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The Application System and Practice of ChatGPT in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language
Song Fei, Guo Jiahui, Qu Chang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 110-128.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.491
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In recent years, the continued development of artificial intelligence technology has promoted progress in the field of education. Ever since the birth of ChatGPT, its powerful text-understanding-and-generation functions have aroused widespread attention and discussion in the field of foreign language education. Based on the everyday practice of teaching Chinese as a foreign language, this study explores the application of ChatGPT in classroom teaching and in teaching resource construction. In the context of classroom teaching, how ChatGPT assists in language teaching, cultural teaching, and exam tutoring is discussed. Following this, this paper analyzes how ChatGPT can be applied in developing six types of teaching resources: teaching materials and auxiliary materials, multimedia teaching resources, network teaching resources, teaching software, applications and websites, learning platforms and management systems, and other teaching resources. ChatGPT can be used as a powerful foreign language teaching tool to assist teachers in resource construction and classroom teaching as well as to promote students’ foreign language learning. However, ChatGPT is limited in terms of professional knowledge, resource searching, and in other regards for which it sometimes fails to meet user needs well. Therefore, to better guide the application of ChatGPT, the function and role of ChatGPT in foreign language teaching should be objectively discerned and the possible problems identified.

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The Mission and Responsibility of Higher Education in China within the New Era
Wang Mingyu, Zhang Yanfeng
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 3-20.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.484
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As socialism with Chinese characteristics enters a new era, higher education in China has shifted from a stage of rapid development to a stage of high-quality development. In this new age, higher education in China is facing unprecedented issues, challenges, and tasks. Meanwhile, as higher education has entered the stage of popularization in China, it has gained in vitality and strength. In the next stage of development, Chinese higher education should improve the quality of education and construct a high-quality education system by developing the following areas: 1) the four functions of student education, scientific research, public services, and cultural inheritance and innovation; 2) the four integrations of interdisciplinary integration, interspecialty integration, industry-education integration, and education-technology integration; and 3) the four developments of discipline development, specialty development, curriculum development, and coursebook development.

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A Probe into the Three-dimensionality of the State Translation Program: A Case Study of the English Translation of Deng Xiaoping: My Father
Ren Dongsheng, Li Jiayue
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 53-66.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.487
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As soon as the two-volume edition of Deng Xiaoping: My Father was published in 1933, the author Deng Rong entrusted ten Chinese translators with its translation. The English version of the first volume, The War Years, was successively released by the American BasicBooks and China Foreign Language Press, while the translation of the second volume, The Cultural Revolution, was completed by Sidney Shapiro and published by the Foreign Language Press. Considering that Deng Xiaoping: My Father has the characteristics of a state text and that its Foreign Language Press translation has been used as a national gift, this paper discusses the English translation process of the book in relation to the three dimensions of the State Translation Program (STP): translation of the state, translation by the state, and translation for the state. The different combination models are then deduced based on the three-dimensionality of the STP in order to empirically interpret its modes of realization and operation.

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The Role of US Translation Policy in Expanding American Cultural Influence Abroad
Gong Xianjing
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 67-79.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.488
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Translation plays a critical and pioneering role in cultural exchange and communication. History indicates that almost every nation has implemented implicit or explicit translation policies to expand its cultural influence abroad. The prevalence of US culture in the world can also be attributed to its translation policies. This paper describes and analyzes how the United States has implemented its translation policies across different historical periods since the 20th century during which different strategic approaches have been adopted to develop and expand US culture influence. Before World War II, the United States appropriated Asian cultural resources via the “translating into” policy sponsored by private foundations. During World War II, it implemented the “translating out” policy to spread American cultural influence in Europe. From the post-WWII period to the late 1970s, both the “translating into” and “translating out” policies were implemented to enhance the global influence of American culture. When the US achieved geopolitical dominance beginning in the 1980s, “translating into” became the primary policy. The paper concludes that both US governmental organizations and nongovernmental organizations fund translation projects and have implemented a two-way “translating into” and “translating out” strategy to expand American cultural influence abroad. The US translation approach may serve as reference for China’s own strategy in expanding its cultural influence abroad.

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Changes in the Semantic Meanings of Attitude Resources in the State Translation of Political Discourse in the Past Twenty Years
Huang Yuqi, Lan Hongjun
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 80-93.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.489
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Political discourse translation is an important part of the State Translation Program. The diachronic description of political discourse translation can contribute to a multidimensional understanding of China’s international discourse practice and thus provide a reference for the construction of a discourse system that is capable of effective international communication. This paper investigates the attitude resources used to express the emotions, attitudes, and stance of China by examining the translation of five documents of the National Congress of the Communist Party of China published at different stages since the 21st century. The results suggest that under the ethics of being faithful to both the state and the writer, equivalent translation has been the first choice among translation strategies. However, nonequivalent translation has been adopted where there is a need for shaping China’s global image or improving China’s capability in communicating internationally. There are a growing number of cases in which the semantic meanings of attitude resources are being changed, with down-shifting translation appearing more frequently than up-shifting translation.

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The Analysis of Narratives in Early Native American Writing from the Perspective of the Imagined Communities
Ouyang Libo, Zhang Yehong
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 123-133.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.481
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This paper analyzes the narratives in early Native American writing, based on the concept of imagined communities which acts as an emotional catalyst, fusing conflicts caused by ethnic disparities to examine the potential of complex identities. By identifying two dimensions of early Native American writing—the emotion expressed in the literary works and the historical presence in space which strengthens this emotional effect—the members of the community complete the construction of identity. This process of identification forms a contradictory but coexisting tension in the new continent of North America. The narratives reveal the role of print-languages and simultaneity-along-time in founding the imagined community.

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The Application of ChatGPT in Translation Teaching: Changes, Challenges and Countermeasures
Zhou Zhongliang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 134-146.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.482
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As a new NLP machine learning model with an extensive ability to produce content, ChatGPT has the potential to transform traditional translation teaching models. However, ChatGPT may also decrease students’ ability to learn autonomously, may undermine teacher-student relationships, damage academic integrity and knowledge security, and lead to ethical and ideological risks. In order to address the challenges and to make full use of ChatGPT in the teaching of translation, it is necessary to change the traditional way of teaching, to reform the teaching process, to improve students’ ability to learn autonomously, to increase education in translation ethics, to control ideological risks, and to enhance teachers and students’ digital literacy.

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Latest Development in Research on Conceptual Metonymy
Wei Zaijiang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 147-160.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.483
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This paper, based on the discussions of examples in English and Chinese metonymy, outlines the latest development of the research on conceptual metonymy and prospects its future research path and directions. First, this paper discusses the transfer of research paradigm from rhetoric to cognitive linguistics. Second, it discusses the latest development of metonymy studies, such as the studies on metonymic triggers and the functions of metonymy. Third, it puts forward some suggestions such as doing the contrastive studies between English and Chinese metonymy, and applying the research results to translation and language teaching & learning for the future studies.

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Legal Translation: Past, Present and Future
Zhang Falian, Sun Bei
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 17-32.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.474
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Legal translation in China began in the late Qing Dynasty, and developed over the following five periods: the embryonic period, the exploration period, the transition period, the development period, and the perfection period. The importance of legal translation became increasingly prominent after the 18th National Congress of the CPC, and attention from people from all walks of life has continued to increase. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the problems in legal translation and to eliminate any misunderstandings. Due to the central government’s emphasis on improving international communication, we must pay attention to the leading role of legal translation, particularly its independent value. In the future, we should do a solid job in the teaching of legal translation and accelerate the process of promoting the standardization of legal translation in order to improve the quality and level of legal translation, to better serve the national strategy, to construct the international discourse system regarding the rule of law, to strengthen the capacity for international communication, and to tell the story of China’s rule of law. We can take the communication of the rule of law as the starting point to create an image of China that is ruled by law in order to gain the trust of the international community and to make more people eager to listen to the story of China.

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On the Hierarchy of Foreign Language Research Methods: Taking Translation Studies as an Example
Huang Zhonglian, Gu Junling
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 3-16.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.473
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Research methods in translation studies are derived but distinct from traditional humanistic research methods. Research methods in translation studies fall into three levels in the hierarchy of all methods: philosophical methods at the macro level, general methods at the meso level and specific methods at the micro level, each of which belongs to corresponding methodological systems. Philosophical methods guide and constrain the other two types. General methods enrich philosophical ones from the bottom to the top and expand specific ones from the top to the bottom. Philosophical methods include universal connection methods, development methods and contradiction analysis methods. General methods consist of two sub-types: dialectical thinking methods include analytical and synthetic methods, inductive and deductive methods, qualitative and quantitative methods, a combination of macroscopic and microscopic methods, methods of consistency between history and logic, and abstract-to-concrete methods; systems science methods include those adopted in systems theory, information theory, cybernetics, dissipation theory, synergy theory and mutation theory. Specific methods, which are the largest in number, can be directly operated and used.

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Twenty-Five Years of Research on Foreign L2 Formulaic Language: Hotspots and Trends — Knowledge Map Analysis Based on WoS-Indexed Journals
Wu Heping, Li Le
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 67-81.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.477
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In recent years, due to the rise of cognitive linguistics, construction grammar, particularly corpus linguistics and phraseology, has led to formulaic language in second language (hereafter referred to as L2 formulaic language) becoming an important field in second language research. For this paper, we retrieved academic papers that mainly focused on L2 formulaic language from the Web of Science (WoS) database, and employed CiteSpace’s literature information visualization technology. The quantitative analysis aimed to objectively and comprehensively trace and analyze the development process, trending topics, and leading subjects in research on L2 formulaic language from 1999 to 2023. The research findings indicated that L2 formulaic language research exhibited an increasing trend of continuous growth. The core research areas encompass the four disciplinary fields of corpus linguistics, psycholinguistics, pragmatics, and applied linguistics. These fields involve various research topics related to L2 formulaic language, including its structure and distribution, representation and processing, usage and functions, and the acquisition and teaching of L2 formulaic language. Based on a bibliometric analysis, this paper aims to clarify the development trends in the field of research on L2 formulaic language over the past 25 years within the academic community. It provides a visual and comprehensive literature guide for future, in-depth research on L2 formulaic language.

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Processability Theory and Its Application in the Acquisition of L2 Chinese
Hu Lina, Chang Hui
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (3): 151-163.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.459
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Processability theory has undergone more than 20 years of development since 1998. Although it is one of the most influential theoretical models that explains the general laws and processes of second language (L2) acquisition, it has not yet received sufficient attention in China. This study first introduces lexical-functional grammar as the theoretical basis of processability theory, followed by the development process and main content, including the development stages, processing procedures, and the conditions of language transfer. A review and an evaluation of its application in the acquisition of L2 Chinese is then presented. The advantages and disadvantages of processability theory are then discussed. Processability theory focuses on the operating mechanisms for language processing and language ability in the brain, but predicting the developmental sequence of L2 acquisition via processability theory is not sufficient, as it minimizes the role of L1 transfer and does not consider the impact of semantic information on defining the stage of syntactic structure. Finally, the development trends of processability theory are discussed, and some directions for future research are suggested.

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Prospects for National Language Security
Shen Qi, Zhou Yan, Zheng Yongyan, Zhang Sihong, Geng Jingjing, Sun Yu
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (3): 164-176.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.460
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Languages are linked closely to national security, and national language security has assumed a pivotal role in the Chinese Path to Modernization in the current era. Consequently, it has become an important area of research within the broader framework of the holistic view of national security. We argue that a comprehensive exploration of national language security is essential, and encompasses various dimensions such as the academic system, the disciplinary system, and the discourse system. This exploration serves to establish a theoretical foundation and to provide practical guidance for the development of a governance system to address national language security within the context of overall national security. Accordingly, current investigations into national language security should prioritize the construction of a theoretical framework for national language security, which includes defining the conceptual scope and fundamental issues pertaining to national language security, and conducting international comparative research on language security theories and methodologies across diverse countries and regions. This approach entails drawing insights from the academic and methodological frameworks of language security worldwide, thereby offering valuable references for the advancement of studies of Chinese language security. Moreover, attention should be paid to the examination of disciplinary systems and discourse systems within the area of national language security. This endeavor involved exploring language and cultural security, the political security of language, and the security of language resources on various levels, encompassing different fields, regions, and spaces (such as the internet). A holistic understanding of language can be attained via this comprehensive investigation, ranging from its fundamental nature to its practical applications, and from micro-level sociolinguistics to macro-level language sociology. Several esteemed domestic scholars have been invited to share their valuable insights to facilitate these endeavors. It is our sincere hope that more colleagues within the academic community will focus on and actively engage in research on national language security.

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Discursive Construction of the Community of Life from the Perspective of Ecological Civilization Based on the Ecological Discourse Analysis of Ecological News Reports in People’s Daily
Miao Xingwei
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (3): 18-28.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.450
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As stated in the report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, human beings and nature constitute the community of life, and human beings should respect, adapt to, and protect nature. The community of life refers to the harmonious co-existence of humans, other life forms, and the environment. As part of the community of life, human beings play a significant role in protecting the eco-system and in sustaining life. The ecological news report in People’s Daily that has the creation of ecological civilization as its central concern focuses on the human-nature relationship, and thus constructs the community of life discursively. The present research is an attempt to propose an analytical framework for the analysis of the community of life from the perspective of ecological civilization. The study used the concordance of high-frequency words and an analysis of thematic networks to investigate the discursive construction of the community of life in the ecological news report in People’s Daily with reference to the discursive construction of ecological relationships and ecological care in building an ecological civilization.

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A Social-cognitive Study of Ecological Civilization Discourse
Zhao Xiufeng
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (3): 29-44.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.451
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In this paper, an integrated analytical framework of “text structure-cognitive mechanism-social structure” is established and applied to corpus-assisted discourse analysis concerning the political discourse about ecological civilization with the aim of revealing the interactions and cognitive mechanisms of the interconnections between discourse structure and social structure. The analysis revealed that four thematic topics, namely ecology, civilization, construction, and governance, were constructed, and that three cognitive mechanisms, namely metaphorical frame, de/recategorization, and cultural schema, were mainly used. The correspondence and interaction between text structure and cognitive mechanisms point to the underlying dominant ideology, which is embodied as the ontology of socialist ecological civilization, dialectic materialism and methodology, and the traditional cultural stance. It is through the interactions of three dimensions, namely text structure, cognitive mechanisms, and social structure, that the discourse concerning ecological civilization effectively constructs a set of new thoughts about civilization, as well as the new norms of social practice. The production, reproduction, communication, and acceptance of such discourse serves the ideological function of reconstructing the view of civilization, regulating social actions, and envisioning the future. This social-cognitive study contributes to the construction of a discourse system for ecological civilization and enhances the discursive efficacy.

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Realization of Ideational Grammatical Metaphor through Conceptual Metaphor and Conceptual Metonymy
Lin Zhengjun, Xia Shizhou
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (3): 3-17.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.449
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Conceptual metaphor and conceptual metonymy are high-level human cognitive working mechanisms concerning experiences while ideational grammatical metaphor focuses on lexical-grammatical expressions of the concepts processed by the high-level cognitive mechanisms. This paper presents a realization framework of ideational grammatical metaphor through conceptual metaphor and conceptual metonymy. The conceptual meaning expressed in the grammatical metaphorical form can be realized through conceptual metaphor and conceptual metonymy. The conceptual meaning expressed via conceptual metaphor and conceptual metonymy motivates the realization of ideational grammatical metaphors. In ideational grammatical metaphor, conceptual metaphor and conceptual metonymy are the main cognitive mechanisms with the changes in process, rank, and form.

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Excerpted Discourses on Translation in the Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement and Their Contemporary Interpretations with Reference to Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq and Al-Jāḥiẓ
Wang Xueming
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (3): 61-73.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.453
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The Graeco-Arabic translation movement, which spanned the 8th to the 10th centuries, was one of the main events in the flourishing of Arabic culture in medieval times, and together with major translation activities in other cultures, such as Bible translations in the West and Buddhism translations in China, contributed to translation activities across the world. The Graeco-Arabic translation movement was characterized by intensive translation practices, a vast scale, lasting continuity, and a profound influence that was unprecedented in any other ethnic nation or culture. In terms of translatology, it is worth noting that the translation movement also resulted in a wealth of discourse about translation which, apart from providing contextual resources for understanding this epoch-making event, exhibits some characteristics of contemporary translation theories. However, this treasure has generally been neglected in academic circles, and its historical and theoretical significance has largely been hidden from sight. In view of the philosophy of generating discourse about translation, two representatives of a group of translators during this period, Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq and Al-Jāḥiẓ, were selected and an interpretation of their remarks about translation is offered with reference to contemporary translation theories, with the aim of presenting Arabic scholars’ generalizations and deliberations about translation activities, thus providing the opportunity for interactions concerning discourse on translation among various cultures worldwide.

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Pragmatics in Prospect
Chen Xinren, He Gang, Mao Yansheng, Ran Yongping, Yu Guodong, Wu Yaxin, Jiang Hui, Ren Wei, Xie Chaoqun
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (2): 137-148.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.447
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Pragmatics is an extremely down-to-earth linguistic discipline despite having complex theories. It has made tremendous progress in theory and application in the last decade, as evidenced by the clear trends toward paying more attention to the use of language in various social contexts and using relevant theories from other disciplines more frequently to conduct interdisciplinary research. In addition, greater importance is being attached to social constructivism in the study of transdisciplinary issues such as linguistic politeness, face, identity, stance, image, and trust, as well as more emphasis being placed on integrating the perspectives of multiple subjects, such as speakers, listeners, bystanders, and commentators, in the analysis of interactions. Furthermore, more stress is being placed on the integration of multi-contextual factors, such as the communicative context, the sequential context/co-text, and the sociocultural context, as well as on a preference for qualitative research or a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods, and the use of multimodal discourse analyses.

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Bettering Translation Planning to Improve the Capacity of the State Translation Program: A Talk with Professor Ren Dongsheng
Gao Yuxia, Ren Dongsheng
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (2): 149-159.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.448
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As a special language function of planning, translation planning is a systematic project for the formulation, adjustment, and implementation of national translation policies, which are directly related to the improvement of national language competence, particularly national discourse competence. The state translation program is an important part of the construction of a foreign discourse system. The effective implementation of the state translation program depends on effective, scientific state translation planning. This paper presents an interview with Professor Ren Dongsheng regarding the issues in the planning of the state translation program and the improvements to the capacity of the state translation program to increase the readers’ understanding and to point out directions for the study of the state translation program and translation theory.

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Bilingualism and Alzheimer’s: Quantification of Bilingualism and Bi-dialectalism
Dong Yanping, Zhou Xinan
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (2): 18-32.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.438
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The bilingual experience may enhance cognitive reserves by allowing individuals to resist the cognitive decline associated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Preliminary evidence from prospective and retrospective studies has shown that the bilingual experience may delay the age of onset and the age of diagnosis, but may not decrease the incidence rate, which can be explained by neuropsychological research. A scrutiny of research designs in previous studies suggests that the inconsistency in the results is likely due to the complicated language background of bilinguals and the diverse ways of quantifying bilingualism. Future studies require a more detailed analysis of older adults’ language backgrounds. In addition, the bi-dialectal experience is a widespread linguistic phenomenon in China, and may also protect against Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegeneration diseases; thus, it merits more systematic research on the part of Chinese researchers.

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Translation Studies Based on a Multilingual Corpus: Topics and Significance
Hu Kaibao, Tian Xujun
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (2): 3-17.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.437
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This paper, which traces the origin and research status of corpus-based translation studies, highlights the disadvantages of current corpus-based translation studies, and proposes that translation studies based on multilingual corpora should be conducted to expand and deepen corpus-based translation studies. It is argued that the main topics in translation studies that are based on multilingual corpora include translation universals, translation norms, translation units, and translation strategies and methods. Translation studies that are based on multilingual corpora will not only overcome the limitations of the current corpus-based translation studies that rely excessively on monolingual or bilingual corpora and expand corpus-based translation studies, but will also provide an important basis for the study of translation theory that will have universal significance and will promote the development of general translation studies.

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When Translation Meets the Metaverse: An Exploration of the Translation Practice Landscape in the Digital Society
Wang Shaoshuang, Zhu Yu
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (2): 33-47.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.439
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As a very recent stage in the evolution of the internet, metaverse technology is characterized by immersive experiences, decentralization, virtualization, and open creation, and is likely to construct a digital society via the in-depth integration of the physical, human, and information worlds. The coming of the metaverse era will transform both the translation environment and the mode(s) of translation practice, and will offer unprecedented development opportunities while also posing various challenges to the translation industry. Based on an analysis of the key technologies and the basic features of the metaverse, this paper presents an overview of the possible impacts of network connection technology, data processing technology, authentication technology, virtual-real interaction technology, and content production technology on translation practice in the future digital society, as well as a possible picture of the translation landscape. It also provides a discussion of how the relevant parties in the industrial chain of translation services, such as translation service providers, translation technology developers, translator training providers, and translation service clients, could respond to the challenges that the metaverse poses to translation practice with a view to providing some suggestions for the career planning of translation learners and translation practitioners.

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Research on the Chinese Characteristics of Foreign Language Speech Materials in China from a Comparative Perspective — Taking Understanding Contemporary China: Spanish Speech Course as an Example
Cao Yufei, Ding Yiwen
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (2): 88-101.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.443
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As material carriers of knowledge, textbooks play an important role in the construction of disciplines and in teaching activities. How to compile teaching materials that are suitable for Chinese foreign-language majors and how to balance the subject knowledge content and the ideological and political curriculum content in textbooks are important issues that textbook compilers need to explore. This paper summarizes the Chinese characteristics of a foreign-language speech course textbook in China from the macro and micro levels via a comparison of Chinese and foreign speech course materials. The research revealed that Chinese foreign-language speech materials should achieve the goal of conveying the core values of socialism with Chinese characteristics in addition to systematically imparting the subject knowledge. Accordingly, the speech topics, the main texts, the discourse system, and the multimodal elements in the teaching materials should reflect Chinese characteristics with the aim of ensuring the development of the students’ capacity to tell stories about China well in foreign languages on the international stage.

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Space Confrontation and Identity Construction in William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying
He Aijun, Hu Lingli
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (1): 106-116.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.434
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As I Lay Dying is a representative work published by the famous American writer William Faulkner in the year 1930. The book centers on the description of a family’s journey to the town of Jefferson for the burial of the matriarch, Addie. Since its publication, the novel has attracted the attention of researchers who have been interested in the novel’s characters, the religious tropes and the artistic means. Comparatively speaking, the social elements of the novel are seldom discussed. The present authors believe that this novel is not only a representation of the life of poor white farmers, but also suggests the battle between the town and the countryside, as well as the identity construction in the south of the United States. The pressures and restraints exerted on the Bundrens when they struggle to be a part of the urban community indicate the structural domination of the town over the countryside. The shift of perspectives disrupts the narrative coherence, and presents the Bundren family as a fragmented, conflicted, and vulnerable group, thus suggesting the plight of rural whites during the process of urbanization. This article explores the hierarchical distinction between the town and the countryside, the journey of the Bundrens, and the resistant “representational space” of Addie and others from the perspective of Henri Lefebvre’s spatial triad theory. Faulkner shows his strong humanistic concern by describing these white farmers’ struggles to survive in a narrow space.

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A Contrastive Study of the Deployment of Grammatical Metaphors in English and Chinese Political Discourses Based on Mode Differentiation
Cheng Xi
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (1): 129-145.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.436
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This study explored the features of grammatical metaphor (GM) deployment via a comparative analysis of English and Chinese political discourses in different modes. The paper first described the mode differentiation among the three text types—political reports, speeches, and interviews—by calculating their lexical density and grammatical intricacy. After quantifying the instances of GMs, the study identified a GM distribution continuum across the three English and Chinese text types respectively, followed by an examination of the similarities and differences in the distribution of GMs in English and Chinese text types. It was found that the degree of GM deployment in English reports was higher than it was in Chinese reports, but that the use of GMs in English speeches and interviews was less than it was in Chinese texts in the same mode. The analysis of conceptual GMs revealed that the distributions of Types 1, 2, 6, and 13 were quite different in the English and the Chinese reports, while the distributions of Types 5 and 6 differed in the English and the Chinese speeches and interviews. The discussion of interpersonal GMs suggested that English and Chinese speeches and interviews mainly used GMs of modality, particularly the subcategory “probability”. Exploring the features of GM deployment in political text types with different modes is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between language and context.

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A Survey of Modern and Contemporary Henan Translators
Liu Zequan, Guo Mi
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (1): 13-29.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.428
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Henan Province, which is located in the hinterland of Zhong Yuan or the Central Plains, has undergone a magnificent transformation during the twentieth century, and has produced 160 translators who have contributed to the development of the region. This study combined internal and external methods of translation history, and collected and clarified the biographical information about Henan translators and the materials for their translations with the aim of investigating the collective characteristics of this group and their relationship with their native land. By objectively evaluating the historical contribution and social status of this group, this paper intends to call on present and future translators to continue their undertakings with a view to shedding light on the training of regional translators and foreign language researchers, and on telling “the Yellow River stories” and the “Henan stories”.

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Trends in Translation Studies from the Perspective of New Terms
Fang Mengzhi
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (1): 3-12.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.427
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A term is a concept inside a domain, and a new concept is often expressed via a new term. The paper presents some of the new terms in A Dictionary of Translation Studies in China (Revised and Enlarged Edition), which is to be published in 2023, as examples to investigate the trends in translation studies. According to the statistics, the new terms mainly arose in the following four fields: traditional Chinese translation theory, modern Chinese translation theory, western translation theory, and translation technology. The terms represent recent academic achievements in a variety of disciplines, such as linguistics, information technology, sociology, ecology, philosophy, and psychology. The interdisciplinary approach is applied extensively in translation studies at present.

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Critical Cognitive Linguistics and Intersubjectivity
Zhang Hui
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (1): 30-49.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.429
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Intersubjectivity refers to sharing the experiences of emotion, perception, and language among more than two participants. Language is not only rooted in our bodies, but also in society and intersubjectivity. The paper shows that, when we explain the cognitive foundation of semantics, cognitive linguistics pursues the principle of individualization, thus failing to resolve the contradiction between embodiment and intersubjectivity. In order to address this research gap, we need to borrow ideas from phenomenology. Zlatev proposed the concept of embodied intersubjectivity, which combines embodiment and intersubjectivity as two complementary aspects of the same phenomenon. According to this point of view, speakers and hearers produce “cognitive coordination” together; in linguistic communication, speakers invite hearers to participate in the inferences evoked by linguistic expression, thus altering the cognitive system of hearers and modulating their common ground accordingly. Normal linguistic usages not only have informative functions, but also have “argumentative” functions. Therefore, speakers can influence others’ minds, attitudes, stances, and spontaneous actions through language. Critical cognitive linguistics reflects intersubjectivity because the former is concerned with linguistic usages and their associated conceptual structures, as well as the ideological and legitimating functions these conceptual structures have in speech situations; in other words, people’s ideologies, stances, ideas, points of view, and the acceptability thereof are affected by language. Critical cognitive linguistics can remedy the omission of sociality and intersubjectivity, and can embody “the social turn” in cognitive linguistics.

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