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The Application of ChatGPT in Translation Teaching: Changes, Challenges and Countermeasures
Zhou Zhongliang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 134-146.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.482
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As a new NLP machine learning model with an extensive ability to produce content, ChatGPT has the potential to transform traditional translation teaching models. However, ChatGPT may also decrease students’ ability to learn autonomously, may undermine teacher-student relationships, damage academic integrity and knowledge security, and lead to ethical and ideological risks. In order to address the challenges and to make full use of ChatGPT in the teaching of translation, it is necessary to change the traditional way of teaching, to reform the teaching process, to improve students’ ability to learn autonomously, to increase education in translation ethics, to control ideological risks, and to enhance teachers and students’ digital literacy.

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ChatGPT for Empowering Foreign Language Teaching: Scenarios and Strategies
Li Zuowen
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (1): 109-118.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.501
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ChatGPT, which reflects the level of language intelligence, integrates information searching, machine translation, and dialogue production with its powerful generation ability, potentially representing a technological revolution. Foreign language teaching is related to the cultivation of language ability and knowledge transfer and is bound to be directly affected by the rapid development of language intelligence. On the basis of introducing the functions and characteristics of ChatGPT, this paper analyzes the applications and challenges of ChatGPT in foreign language teaching. As a response to these potential problems, this paper proposes several general strategies. As the integration of humans and artificial intelligence intensifies, foreign language teaching should adhere to its fundamental goal of educating students, reform its teaching paradigm, seek to innovate, strive to improve language intelligence literacy, enhance language intelligence ethics awareness, and cultivate more high-quality foreign language talents.

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Q Methodological Research in Applied Linguistics: A Systematic Review Based on PRISMA
Jiang Wei, Qin Lili, Du Shiqin
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (2): 78-94.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.511
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In recent years, mixed research methods have gradually attracted the attention of scholars in the field of applied linguistics, among which the Q method, as a mixed research method to explore human subjectivity, combines the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods, and examines subjectivity via objective measures at both holistic and individual levels. However, understanding the application of the Q method in this field is still in its infancy, and there are few relevant research results; empirical Chinese studies are particularly lacking. Therefore, in this study, we employ a systematic review by searching key literature databases in China and overseas and investigating Q methodological studies in applied linguistics. The researchers reviewed the current status of Q methodological research in terms of theoretical perspectives, research topics, as well as data collection and analysis characteristics. We have found that few Q methodological studies have integrated theories, and have a predominant focus on motivational themes, as the research topics encompass motivations, emotions, beliefs, curriculum evaluations, and the like. The data collection and analysis have revealed developmental trends ranging from synchronic to diachronic, intra-group to inter-group, or a combination of intra-group and inter-group. Finally, we propose future directions for Q methodological research based on existing research gaps with the aim of providing new insights for future studies.

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A Tentative Study of Foreign Language Teaching in the Context of Metaverse
Chen Jianlin, Qin Feng
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (1): 99-108.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.500
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The concept of metaverse has recently seen wider application in the innovation of various fields. However, it remains unclear how foreign language teaching research within the context of the metaverse would be carried out. This paper mainly explores this issue by outlining what the metaverse is and how it can be applied to foreign-language teaching research with the aim of stimulating further discussion on this subject. Other specific issues that are discussed include the origin and definition of the metaverse concept, the evolution of the human activity space, the development of the Internet, and the new form of foreign language teaching research in the context of metaverse.

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On the Hierarchy of Foreign Language Research Methods: Taking Translation Studies as an Example
Huang Zhonglian, Gu Junling
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 3-16.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.473
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Research methods in translation studies are derived but distinct from traditional humanistic research methods. Research methods in translation studies fall into three levels in the hierarchy of all methods: philosophical methods at the macro level, general methods at the meso level and specific methods at the micro level, each of which belongs to corresponding methodological systems. Philosophical methods guide and constrain the other two types. General methods enrich philosophical ones from the bottom to the top and expand specific ones from the top to the bottom. Philosophical methods include universal connection methods, development methods and contradiction analysis methods. General methods consist of two sub-types: dialectical thinking methods include analytical and synthetic methods, inductive and deductive methods, qualitative and quantitative methods, a combination of macroscopic and microscopic methods, methods of consistency between history and logic, and abstract-to-concrete methods; systems science methods include those adopted in systems theory, information theory, cybernetics, dissipation theory, synergy theory and mutation theory. Specific methods, which are the largest in number, can be directly operated and used.

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Language Input and the Development of Language Ability in Language Acquisition: An Example of the Mother Tongue Acquisition Process of “Dongdong” in The Language Diary of a Chinese Girl in the Early Years of Life
Shu Dingfang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (1): 3-18.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.494
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According to universal grammar, in the process of children’s language acquisition, there are many deficiencies in language stimuli, but children are nonetheless able to develop grammatical abilities, indicating the existence of an innate language acquisition mechanism in the brain. This hypothesis has been challenged by cognitive linguists, who believe that children’s understanding and use of language is based on general cognitive abilities, especially memory, abstraction, and reasoning. In recent years, experiments have revealed that children have excellent memory, abstraction, and reasoning abilities. Abstraction helps children to grasp grammar rules and acquire constructions through daily exposure to language materials, while reasoning helps children to use existing knowledge to acquire new knowledge, thereby enhancing their expressive abilities. This paper examines the actual process of children’s language acquisition and suggests that the acquisition of children’s language abilities is closely related to the quality and quantity of language input. The sources of language stimuli that children receive are extensive, and their richness, specificity, and frequency far exceed the imagination of the general public. Moreover, children’s language abilities interact with their conceptual and thinking abilities. These conceptual abilities can promote the development of language abilities, which in turn can further promote the development of thinking abilities.

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On Interactional Linguistics: A Response to Zheng Juanman
Yu Guodong
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (4): 92-106.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.468
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Interactional linguistics (IL), a research methodology in linguistics, has attracted a significant amount of attention in China in recent years. As a conversation analysis (CA)-informed research methodology, IL is closely aligned with and is directly related to CA. This paper first introduces the theoretical foundations, the research objectives, and the research procedures in IL, and then takes On the Functions of Compromising Response via Haoba — Towards an Interactional Linguistic Approach by Zheng Juanman (2018) as an example to reveal some of the problems in Zheng’s research so as to highlight the necessity of adopting correct ways to conduct empirical research based on the IL framework. We hope that our fellow researchers will strictly adhere to the principles of IL, master the correct research methods of IL, and conduct objective, scientific and convincing IL empirical research.

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The Application System and Practice of ChatGPT in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language
Song Fei, Guo Jiahui, Qu Chang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 110-128.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.491
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In recent years, the continued development of artificial intelligence technology has promoted progress in the field of education. Ever since the birth of ChatGPT, its powerful text-understanding-and-generation functions have aroused widespread attention and discussion in the field of foreign language education. Based on the everyday practice of teaching Chinese as a foreign language, this study explores the application of ChatGPT in classroom teaching and in teaching resource construction. In the context of classroom teaching, how ChatGPT assists in language teaching, cultural teaching, and exam tutoring is discussed. Following this, this paper analyzes how ChatGPT can be applied in developing six types of teaching resources: teaching materials and auxiliary materials, multimedia teaching resources, network teaching resources, teaching software, applications and websites, learning platforms and management systems, and other teaching resources. ChatGPT can be used as a powerful foreign language teaching tool to assist teachers in resource construction and classroom teaching as well as to promote students’ foreign language learning. However, ChatGPT is limited in terms of professional knowledge, resource searching, and in other regards for which it sometimes fails to meet user needs well. Therefore, to better guide the application of ChatGPT, the function and role of ChatGPT in foreign language teaching should be objectively discerned and the possible problems identified.

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A Corpus-based Study of Wang Rongpei’s Translation Style: A Case Study of the English Versions of Shijing
Wu Xiaolong
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 82-97.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.478
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Wang Rongpei is a renowned contemporary translator of Chinese classics. He has translated more than 60 Chinese classical works in his lifetime, among which eight works, including Shijing, have been selected for inclusion in the Library of Chinese Classics due to their outstanding contributions to the English translation of Chinese classics. Based on the English-Chinese parallel corpus of Shijing, WordSmith was used to investigate Wang Rongpei’s translation style on both the lexical and the syntactic levels by comparing his English translation of Shijing to the English versions by Legge, Pound, and Xu Yuanchong. This study discusses both T-type and S-type translator styles, based on which the interpretation of the motivations is proposed. While reflecting the translator’s style directly by using the statistical data of corpus, exploring the translator’s style by considering the source text is helpful for revealing the essence of translation objectively and comprehensively.

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Latest Development in Research on Conceptual Metonymy
Wei Zaijiang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 147-160.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.483
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This paper, based on the discussions of examples in English and Chinese metonymy, outlines the latest development of the research on conceptual metonymy and prospects its future research path and directions. First, this paper discusses the transfer of research paradigm from rhetoric to cognitive linguistics. Second, it discusses the latest development of metonymy studies, such as the studies on metonymic triggers and the functions of metonymy. Third, it puts forward some suggestions such as doing the contrastive studies between English and Chinese metonymy, and applying the research results to translation and language teaching & learning for the future studies.

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Questions Concerning Translator Behavior Criticism and Its Applications: Answers to the Researchers (I)
Zhou Lingshun
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (4): 6-23.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.462
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In this paper, the author, as the initiator of the theory of Translator Behavior Criticism, answers researchers’ questions concerning the possible origins, causes, and the applications of the theory. For its applications, the author specifically takes the analytic hierarchy process to be the method in order to get the theory improved and the studies strengthened through theory carding, doubts clearing and collaborative learning.

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Has Generative AI Opened a New Era for Machine Translation?— A Contrastive Quality Study and Reflections on Translation Education
Zhang Wenyu, Zhao Bi
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (1): 83-98.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.499
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The introduction of the generative artificial intelligence technology, has had an immediate and substantial impact on the mode of work of those involved in language content services, sparking a massive proliferation in its potential applications. In order to evaluate the performance of the Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) language model in translation practices, a translation quality assessment experiment combining automatic machine evaluation and manual evaluation was conducted. The results showed that the GPT language model does not constitute an iteration of machine translation technology in the field of translation but that it does provide a noticeable degree of quality improvement in Chinese-English translation, terminology translation, and literary translation, among other tasks. On this basis, some suggestions on how to respond to the changes brought by artificial intelligence technology to translation education are put forward.

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Legal Translation: Past, Present and Future
Zhang Falian, Sun Bei
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 17-32.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.474
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Legal translation in China began in the late Qing Dynasty, and developed over the following five periods: the embryonic period, the exploration period, the transition period, the development period, and the perfection period. The importance of legal translation became increasingly prominent after the 18th National Congress of the CPC, and attention from people from all walks of life has continued to increase. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the problems in legal translation and to eliminate any misunderstandings. Due to the central government’s emphasis on improving international communication, we must pay attention to the leading role of legal translation, particularly its independent value. In the future, we should do a solid job in the teaching of legal translation and accelerate the process of promoting the standardization of legal translation in order to improve the quality and level of legal translation, to better serve the national strategy, to construct the international discourse system regarding the rule of law, to strengthen the capacity for international communication, and to tell the story of China’s rule of law. We can take the communication of the rule of law as the starting point to create an image of China that is ruled by law in order to gain the trust of the international community and to make more people eager to listen to the story of China.

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The Concept, Question and Methodology of Socio-Cognitive Translation Studies: A New Approach to the Research of Translator’s Behavior
Hu Xianyao
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (4): 37-50.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.464
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Starting from the divergence and convergence of the current linguistic, socio-cultural, and cognitive paradigms of Translation Studies and drawing on the research of Social Cognition, this article introduces the concept, question and methodology of Socio-cognitive Translation Studies. It is proposed that translation be viewed as social cognition, that is, an interlingual operation shaped by the translator’s perception, interpretation, and conceptualization of the social world. Facilitated by the conceptual tools, theoretical and methodological models of Social Cognition, this combinatory approach may help to reach a more inclusive and coherent account for the ontology and methodology of Translation Studies, to raise some new questions meaningful both theoretically and practically, and to shed some new light on the research of the translator’s behavior.

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A Review of English Translations of Cao Yu’s Theatrical Works
Zhang Cuiling, Zhao Qiurong
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 109-122.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.480
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Cao Yu is considered the founder of modern Chinese drama; he wrote and adapted a total of 13 dramatic works during his lifetime, most of which have been translated into English. These English translations have mainly been published as stand-alone books, with a few appearing in journals or being included in anthologies of translations, involving 19 translators from both China and the West. This paper reviews the English translations of Cao Yu’s plays in terms of the translators and their translations, with a particular focus on the translation of four of his masterpieces, Thunderstorm, The Sunrise, The Wilderness and Peking Man. This study revealed that the English translations of Cao Yu’s works were characterized by slow translation updates, outdated language use in translations, and a lack of translators, which has affected the dissemination and acceptance of Cao Yu’s plays in the English-speaking world to a certain extent. This paper can provide references for translation practitioners, and is important not only for the research on Cao Yu and drama translation studies, but also for the promotion and dissemination of Chinese literature across the world.

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Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (4): 4-5.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.461
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The Discipline of Foreign Languages and Literatures: Significant Changes and Their Profound Impact
Guo Yingjian
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (2): 3-17.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.505
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In January 2024, commissioned by the Degree Committee of the State Council, the Association of Chinese Graduate Education released the Introduction to Graduate Education Disciplines and Specializations and Their Basic Degree Requirements, which includes content related to the discipline of foreign languages and literatures, as well as disciplines related to them. There are significant changes from the past. In this paper, we will focus on analyzing the main content, specific connotations, practical significance, and the profound impact of these significant changes on the future construction of foreign language disciplines.

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English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education: Developing Scientific Literacy
Cai Jigang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (1): 19-28.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.495
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English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education (2022 Edition) postulates that cultural awareness is one of the key competencies for students. Although this is understandable, considering the critical role of scientific literacy in compulsory education, we suggest that the key competencies should include scientific literacy education, which is an active response to the government decision that the scientific literacy of young boys and girls should be greatly improved during the 14th Five-Year Plan. Scientific literacy is the basis of cultural awareness and cross-disciplinary studies. Without the fundamentals of scientific knowledge and methodology, youths will lack the intellectual tools and social responsibility needed for true cultural awareness. After analyzing the causes underlying the dearth of attention paid to scientific literacy education in compulsory and even higher education, we suggest reforms are needed in the development of teaching materials, the methodology of English instruction, and the organization of various scientific activities.

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Wai-lim Yip’s Thoughts about the English Translation of Classical Chinese Poetry
Li Jie
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 98-108.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.479
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With regard to the translation of classical Chinese poetry, translators with different purposes and cultural background, in different times and regions, have formed different ideas about translation and have proposed different translation paths and methods. Wai-lim Yip, a well-known scholar of Chinese origin, proposed and constructed his comparative poetics with the “model” as the core concept. When translating classical Chinese poetry, he implemented his poetic theory, established his thoughts about the translation of classical Chinese poetry. Wai-lim Yip’s translation thoughts reveal his cultural awareness and translation appeals, highlight attributes and features of classical Chinese poetry as well as Chinese poetics, and provide a distinctive research perspective and translation paths in translating classical Chinese poetry. Based on a close study of two of his representative translated works, from three perspectives, namely views on source text understanding and interpretation, concepts and paths for the target text production, and effects of target readers’ acceptance, the thesis analyzes and elaborates Wai-lim Yip’s thoughts about translation, his comparative poetics manifested in his translated poetry, as well as the accommodation and integration of his poetic thoughts and translation thoughts. This study has a positive meaning to the practice and the theoretical study of the translation of classical Chinese poetry and the study of the construction and acceptance of Chinese literature abroad.

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A Corpus-Based Study of the Translator Shih-I Hsuing’s English Translations of Chinese Dramas
Ma Qing
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (4): 66-80.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.466
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Shih-I Hsuing was the first drama translator to have introduced Chinese Peking Opera to the West. However, Chinese scholars have paid little attention to his translations or translator’s style. Focusing on Shih-I Hsuing’s English translations of Lady Precious Stream and The Romance of the Western Chamber, this study explores his translator’s style using a self-built corpus. It has revealed that Shih-I Hsuing had a consistent translation style featuring limited lexical diversity, low information load, and high readability and intelligibility. However, due to the differences in the translation purposes and strategies, Lady Precious Stream is more suitable for performance in terms of orality, language dynamism and dialogue fluency. Translators should strive to balance the literary and theatrical aspects to ensure positive reception of their works.

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Twenty-Five Years of Research on Foreign L2 Formulaic Language: Hotspots and Trends — Knowledge Map Analysis Based on WoS-Indexed Journals
Wu Heping, Li Le
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 67-81.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.477
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In recent years, due to the rise of cognitive linguistics, construction grammar, particularly corpus linguistics and phraseology, has led to formulaic language in second language (hereafter referred to as L2 formulaic language) becoming an important field in second language research. For this paper, we retrieved academic papers that mainly focused on L2 formulaic language from the Web of Science (WoS) database, and employed CiteSpace’s literature information visualization technology. The quantitative analysis aimed to objectively and comprehensively trace and analyze the development process, trending topics, and leading subjects in research on L2 formulaic language from 1999 to 2023. The research findings indicated that L2 formulaic language research exhibited an increasing trend of continuous growth. The core research areas encompass the four disciplinary fields of corpus linguistics, psycholinguistics, pragmatics, and applied linguistics. These fields involve various research topics related to L2 formulaic language, including its structure and distribution, representation and processing, usage and functions, and the acquisition and teaching of L2 formulaic language. Based on a bibliometric analysis, this paper aims to clarify the development trends in the field of research on L2 formulaic language over the past 25 years within the academic community. It provides a visual and comprehensive literature guide for future, in-depth research on L2 formulaic language.

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The Mission and Responsibility of Higher Education in China within the New Era
Wang Mingyu, Zhang Yanfeng
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 3-20.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.484
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As socialism with Chinese characteristics enters a new era, higher education in China has shifted from a stage of rapid development to a stage of high-quality development. In this new age, higher education in China is facing unprecedented issues, challenges, and tasks. Meanwhile, as higher education has entered the stage of popularization in China, it has gained in vitality and strength. In the next stage of development, Chinese higher education should improve the quality of education and construct a high-quality education system by developing the following areas: 1) the four functions of student education, scientific research, public services, and cultural inheritance and innovation; 2) the four integrations of interdisciplinary integration, interspecialty integration, industry-education integration, and education-technology integration; and 3) the four developments of discipline development, specialty development, curriculum development, and coursebook development.

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A Study of Chinese Cultural Aphasia Based on Semantic Wave Theory and Attitude Resources — Taking the Discourse Analysis of Confucianism in the American Textbook World History as an Example
Liang Liwen, Wang Xuemei
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (4): 120-133.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.470
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In this paper, the globalized social and cultural context is adopted as a bridge, semantic wave theory and attitude resources are integrated, and statistical descriptions are combined with qualitative analyses to provide a discourse analysis of Confucianism in World History, a widely used secondary school history textbook in the United States. The results revealed that, the Confucian knowledge system is integrated into Western culture via abstraction and simplification. Furthermore, the Confucian value system is integrated into Western value systems through the attitudinal evaluation of the textbook discourse, eventually causing it to lose its individual voice.

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A Study of the Behaviors of a Group of Chinese Translators of Burns’ Poems
Li Zhengshuan, Zhang Dan
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (4): 24-36.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.463
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Burns was one of the earliest foreign poets to be introduced to China. His poems have been disseminated for a long time and have been studied extensively, which indicates that his poems are of tremendous literary value and have great research potential. From the perspective of Translator Behavior Criticism, this paper studies the translator behaviors of four translators, namely Yuan Shuipai, Yuan Kejia, Wang Zuoliang and Li Zhengshuan, from the two aspects of extra-translation and intra-translation to analyze their translator behaviors as influenced by the historical context, translation principles, and literary positions, as well as their behaviors when they convey the original meaning, rhythm, and style. The aim is to provide new contributions to the study of Burns’ poetry and to research on translator behaviors.

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Conversation Analysis of Chinese Based on Dialogic Syntax
Wang Deliang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (4): 134-148.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.471
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The majority of the previous studies of Chinese conversation analysis have been conducted from the perspectives of sociology, ethnography, or pragmatics. In recent years, a new trend has appeared in the field of dialogue research, namely Dialogue Syntax, which attempts to study dialogue from the perspective of cognitive functionalism. Based on the framework of Dialogic Syntax, the present paper investigates Chinese conversations and analyzes the parallelism, resonance, reproduction, diagraphs, selection, analogy, and contrast in real dialogues carefully and in depth. This analysis has obvious advantages over previous analyses, as the characteristics of Chinese dialogic structure can be better understood and the linguistic, cognitive, functional, pragmatic, and interactional processes can be clarified more appropriately.

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The Layered Consciousness and Product Orientation for International Chinese Education
Cui Xiliang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (4): 81-91.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.467
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Two concepts are important in International Chinese Education: The layered consciousness and product orientation. International Chinese Education is a national and ethnic undertaking for the country, an emerging and interdisciplinary subject for universities, a career and a profession for practitioners, an interdisciplinary major for learners, and a language service for society. The author presumes that different layer should pursuit different goals, bear different responsibilities and focus on different issues in International Chinese Education. As for language service, product orientation is crucial for International Chinese Education.

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Dynamic Parsing of Conversational Dialogues in Mandarin Chinese: A Case Analysis of Repair
Yu Yue, Wu Yicheng
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (4): 107-119.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.469
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Conversation, as the basic form of “language use”, has posed considerable challenges for formal linguistic studies, as well as for natural language processing. Due to its interactivity, dynamicality, and context dependency, there is still little operation mechanism research concerning the formal characterization of the dynamic parsing process of conversation. Within the framework of dynamic syntax that defines representations of content and of context both dynamically and structurally, this study attempts to provide a parsing-based account of conversational dialogues in Mandarin illustrated by the dynamic parsing process of conversational repair examples. It is concluded that natural language conversation can be accounted for adequately by placing a high premium on context and on the interaction among structural, lexical, and pragmatic information.

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Parallel Merge: The Theory and Its Account of Ultra-local Phenomena
Ye Kuang
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 33-49.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.475
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Ultra-local syntactic structures are very common crosslinguistically and there is no consensus on how to analyze them in a unified way. Parallel merge (PM) theory provides such an opportunity. The paper firstly introduces the main idea of this theory and key factors involved in the derivation of sentences given PM. It is then shown that the four cross-linguistic ultra-local structures can be novely and successfully accounted for by following the PM approach, including right-node raising constructions, amalgamated sentences, serial verb constructions, and appositive constructions. Lastly, it is demonstrated that the ultra-local phenomena in Mandarin Chinese, such as the appositional construction, can also be explained using this approach.

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A Study of the Translator Behavior of the Self-Translator Group in China
Teng Mei, Yang Junyi
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (4): 51-65.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.465
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Guided by Translator Behavior Criticism theory, this paper presents a descriptive study of the group of domestic self-translators. From the extra-translational perspective, this self-translator group, due to their dual identities as authors and translators, have three main motivations for self-translation, which are to expand their own readership and to enhance their literary influence, to self-translate due to ideological reasons, and to translate for research purposes. Moreover, translator literacy places greater emphasis on bilingual writing skills. From the intra-translational perspective, the self-translator group has focused mainly on “truth-seeking” in meaning on the micro level and the “utility-attaining” function on the macro level, and attempted to strike a balance between “truth-seeking” and “utility-attaining”. This study proposes a cooperative translation mode of “Self-translation + Others Post-editing” to provide a more appropriate and effective self-translation mode for Chinese literature.

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A Cartographic Analysis of Functional Category Deficits in Chinese Agrammatism: A Longitudinal Case Study
Wang Haiyan, Yu Cuihong, Liu Xinmiao
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 50-66.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.476
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The present study aimed to investigate the functional category deficits, including the Tense Phrase (TP), the Complementizer Phrase (CP), and the sub-projections FocusP and FiniteP, in a Chinese speaker with agrammatic aphasia during his recovery process. The results revealed that the patient had the greatest difficulty with the TP, with a notable deficit in referring to the past tense. His sensitivity to the polarity items was severely impaired but had steadily been recovered. Although the data from Chinese agrammatism evinced the cross-linguistic demonstration, our results did not support the Tree Pruning Hypothesis. This study provided evidence for the theoretical analysis of the verbal le1 and the sentence-final le2. This study also shed light on the distinctions between finiteness and non-finiteness in the Chinese language.

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The Analysis of Narratives in Early Native American Writing from the Perspective of the Imagined Communities
Ouyang Libo, Zhang Yehong
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (5): 123-133.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.481
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This paper analyzes the narratives in early Native American writing, based on the concept of imagined communities which acts as an emotional catalyst, fusing conflicts caused by ethnic disparities to examine the potential of complex identities. By identifying two dimensions of early Native American writing—the emotion expressed in the literary works and the historical presence in space which strengthens this emotional effect—the members of the community complete the construction of identity. This process of identification forms a contradictory but coexisting tension in the new continent of North America. The narratives reveal the role of print-languages and simultaneity-along-time in founding the imagined community.

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The Role of US Translation Policy in Expanding American Cultural Influence Abroad
Gong Xianjing
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 67-79.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.488
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Translation plays a critical and pioneering role in cultural exchange and communication. History indicates that almost every nation has implemented implicit or explicit translation policies to expand its cultural influence abroad. The prevalence of US culture in the world can also be attributed to its translation policies. This paper describes and analyzes how the United States has implemented its translation policies across different historical periods since the 20th century during which different strategic approaches have been adopted to develop and expand US culture influence. Before World War II, the United States appropriated Asian cultural resources via the “translating into” policy sponsored by private foundations. During World War II, it implemented the “translating out” policy to spread American cultural influence in Europe. From the post-WWII period to the late 1970s, both the “translating into” and “translating out” policies were implemented to enhance the global influence of American culture. When the US achieved geopolitical dominance beginning in the 1980s, “translating into” became the primary policy. The paper concludes that both US governmental organizations and nongovernmental organizations fund translation projects and have implemented a two-way “translating into” and “translating out” strategy to expand American cultural influence abroad. The US translation approach may serve as reference for China’s own strategy in expanding its cultural influence abroad.

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Social Media and Institutional Identity Construction: A Social Semiotic Analysis of University Discourse in Hong Kong
Li Enyao
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 36-52.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.486
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Market forces have increasingly influenced higher education throughout the world over the past decades. In this global context, universities are confronted with considerable challenges and intense competition, with Hong Kong being no exception. In order to promote their image and enhance their competitiveness, universities in Hong Kong have adopted various branding strategies, particularly on social media platforms. The present study conducts a social semiotic analysis of the identity construction of Hong Kong universities on social media within the framework of Kress and van Leeuwen’s (2006) visual grammar. The data of this study consist of 356 visual images collected from official accounts of eight universities in Hong Kong. The findings show that universities in Hong Kong tend to construct their identities as student-centered, research-oriented, innovative, internationalized, and society-oriented institutions on social media, which reflects the process of educational marketization and cultural hybridity in Hong Kong society and culture.

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A Comparative Study of Discursive Strategies in Japanese and American Leaders’ Political Speeches from the Perspective of Critical Cognitive Linguistics
Yao Yanling, Guo Yujia
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 21-35.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.485
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Based on the theoretical framework of Critical Cognitive Linguistics, this study comparatively analyzes the discursive strategies of Japanese and American leaders’ political speeches from the perspectives of cognitive discourse and cognitive context. By applying the theory of construal operation, the study examines the discourse intention behind the text while exploring the interactive relationship between discursive strategies and social context with reference to both the macro and micro contexts. The results indicate that the leaders of Japan and the United States both use referential strategies, predication strategies, proximisation strategies, and legitimizing strategies to manipulate the audience’s cognition and emotion in political communication, thus achieving discursive coercion and persuasion. Furthermore, the findings demonstrate that Critical Cognitive Linguistics has strong explanatory power in the study of cross-language discourse construction and that the approach of combining cognitive discourse and cognitive context is feasible.

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Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (4): 149-160.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.472
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Changes in the Semantic Meanings of Attitude Resources in the State Translation of Political Discourse in the Past Twenty Years
Huang Yuqi, Lan Hongjun
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 80-93.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.489
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Political discourse translation is an important part of the State Translation Program. The diachronic description of political discourse translation can contribute to a multidimensional understanding of China’s international discourse practice and thus provide a reference for the construction of a discourse system that is capable of effective international communication. This paper investigates the attitude resources used to express the emotions, attitudes, and stance of China by examining the translation of five documents of the National Congress of the Communist Party of China published at different stages since the 21st century. The results suggest that under the ethics of being faithful to both the state and the writer, equivalent translation has been the first choice among translation strategies. However, nonequivalent translation has been adopted where there is a need for shaping China’s global image or improving China’s capability in communicating internationally. There are a growing number of cases in which the semantic meanings of attitude resources are being changed, with down-shifting translation appearing more frequently than up-shifting translation.

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The Correlations between Translator’s Metacognitive Monitoring, Disposition toward Critical Thinking, and Translation Competence
Mo Zi, Zeng Shujing
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 94-109.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.490
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A translator’s metacognitive monitoring and disposition toward critical thinking are critical to his or her competence in translation. However, the potential correlations among these three variables remain to be explored. Using three questionnaires, namely “On Translator’ s Metacognitive Monitoring”, “On Disposition toward Translator’s Critical Thinking”, and “A Translation Test”, this study examined 163 experienced translators who had at least 100 hours of translation experience, with the aim of determining how a translator’s metacognitive monitoring, disposition toward critical thinking, and translation competence affect one another. It was found that both a translator’s metacognitive monitoring and disposition toward critical thinking are significantly correlated with his or her translation competence. Moreover, the model established among the above three variables indicated that a translator’s metacognitive monitoring directly affects his or her translation competence and indirectly affects his or her translation competence through the variable of the translator’s disposition toward critical thinking. Therefore, it is suggested that a translator’s cognitive monitoring ability be properly cultivated and developed in translation teaching so as to enhance his or her translation competence. Additionally, attention should be paid to a translator’s disposition toward critical thinking, as it can also contribute to gaining greater translation competence.

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Status Quo and Prospects of Language Education Management Research
Wang Lifei, Teng Yanjiang, Shao Shanshan
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2024, 46 (1): 29-44.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.496
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Language education management refers to management behavior in which the country, society, individuals, and other entities coordinate the allocation of language resources, solve language problems, achieve language education goals, and meet national strategies and individual development needs. China’s language education management is currently based on the Chinese context with a global vision. The system is composed of the national language, foreign languages, minority languages, and Chinese as an international language and is aimed at contributing to the goal of common prosperity, the realization of national harmony and unity, and the construction of a global community with a shared future for mankind. Accordingly, this paper analyzes the characteristics of language education management, reviews the status quo of language education management in China and internationally, and proposes a focus on the studies of the following areas within language education management: environment, technology, talents, and evaluation. The implications for building a language education management system with Chinese characteristics are also explored.

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A Qualia Structure Analysis of Modifier-Head Verb-Noun Compounds in Chinese
Wang Changsong, Qi Shu
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 129-142.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.492
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This paper explores the internal semantic structure of modifier-head verb-noun (VN) compounds in Chinese from the perspective of qualia structure roles within the framework of Generative Lexicon Theory. It is observed that the agentive type of VAN and the telic type of VTN behave differently in undergoing mei “not” negation of VA/VT, for example, in the contrast between #Jianhua mei jian “The cut-out has not been cut” and Tiehua mei tie “The painting has not been pasted”. We argue that this difference is due to the influence of qualia structure roles: the agentive role of the V brings affectedness on the formation of VAN, while the telic role of the V has no such effect. It is additionally noted that the restriction of “mei VAN” can be waived under certain occasions. From the perspective of qualia structure, we further propose that the internal semantic structure may counteract its syntactic distribution.

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Chinese ESL Learners’ Processing Strategy of English Reflexive Pronoun Ambiguity
Tang Mengmeng, Wu Jinchao
Journal of Beijing International Studies University    2023, 45 (6): 143-156.   DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.493
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This study applied the moving-window self-paced reading paradigm to examine what strategies Chinese learners of English adopt to process reflexive pronoun ambiguity and how they comprehend ambiguous reflexive pronouns. The results suggest that compared with those for processing unambiguous reflexive pronouns with gender cues, response times for processing ambiguous reflexive pronouns are not significantly increased among Chinese learners of English. This finding indicates that the processing strategies of Chinese learners of English and native English speakers are similar. The study also confirms the unrestricted race model but does not support the underspecification account, good enough theory, or construal model and directly contradicts the constraint-based parsing model. In terms of disambiguation tendency, the two groups of participants demonstrated different understandings of ambiguous reflexive pronouns. That is, the native English speakers tended to attribute the reflexive to the adjacent word (NP2), while Chinese English speakers preferentially interpreted it as the head word (NP1), implying the presence of crosslinguistic influence in L2 syntactic disambiguation.

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