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北京第二外国语学院学报  2018, Vol. 40 Issue (5): 37-53    DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.180
语言学研究     
基于语料库的中美媒体关于中国雾霾报道的对比研究 ——以批评话语分析为视角
刘宁()
曲阜师范大学外国语学院,273165
A Corpus-based Contrastive Study of the Reports on the Haze in China in the Chinese and American Media: A Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective
Ning LIU()
College of Foreign Languages, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165,China
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摘要:

本文以批评话语分析为研究视角,基于自建的关于中国雾霾报道的小型语料库,对比分析了中美媒体关于中国雾霾报道的异同。文章从词频、索引行分析、搭配词表、搭配短语4个方面进行了数据对比分析。在进行批评话语分析时,具体采用了辩证—关系分析法,从4个阶段构建分析框架,即:阶段一,从符号层面关注社会弊端;阶段二,确定处理该社会弊端的障碍;阶段三,考虑社会秩序是否“需要”该社会弊端;阶段四,确定跨越障碍的可行性方法。经过数据微观结构分析和辩证—关系宏观结构分析,研究发现:中美媒体关于雾霾的报道呈现出较大差异,而这一差异反映了两国不同的意识形态。美国媒体更加关注雾霾成因及其危害,借此刻意渲染中国负面国家形象;相反,中国媒体则侧重关注雾霾的治理及未来展望,对本国重塑良好的国际形象充满了期待。

关键词: 批评话语分析语料库雾霾意识形态生态话语西方媒体国家形象    
Abstract:

Environmental protection, as a hot topic, has been drawing great attention for a long time. Especially, in recent years a number of haze reports have appeared and they hold different attitudes and opinions towards the haze phenomenon. At present, the virtual image of a country depicted by mainstream media is of great significance for the construction of national image. So, it’s necessary for us to make clear the ideological reflections within the haze report made by the western media, which is much beneficial for China to report in a more proper and suitable way. The perspective, critical discourse analysis provides us with some inspirations and insights into the analysis of ideology. To be specific, dialectical-relational approach (DRA) is employed during the process of critical discourse analysis. The analytical framework is constructed from the following four stages: stage one, to focus upon a social wrong, in its semiotic aspect; stage two, to identify obstacles to addressing the social wrong; stage three, to consider whether the social order “needs” the social wrong; stage four, to identify possible ways to overcome the obstacles. This paper, based on a self-established mini corpus, explores the differences about the haze reports in the Chinese and American media. The data analysis is carried out from the four aspects: word frequency, concordance line, collocates, and clusters. After the microstructure analysis of data and the macrostructure analysis with DRA, it is found that the reports on the haze reveal great differences in the media, which in fact is a good reflection of the ideological disparity. The American media, intending to set up a negative image of China, lays great emphasis on the cause and effect of haze, while the Chinese media on the management and future prospects.

Key words: critical discourse analysis    corpus    haze    ideology    ecological discourse    western media    national image
收稿日期: 2016-06-01 出版日期: 2019-01-09
PACS:  H313  
作者简介: 刘宁,曲阜师范大学外国语学院,273165,研究方向:翻译理论与实践语料库翻译学。
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引用本文:

刘宁. 基于语料库的中美媒体关于中国雾霾报道的对比研究 ——以批评话语分析为视角[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2018, 40(5): 37-53.

Ning LIU. A Corpus-based Contrastive Study of the Reports on the Haze in China in the Chinese and American Media: A Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2018, 40(5): 37-53.

链接本文:

https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12002/j.bisu.180        https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2018/V40/I5/37

纽约时报 中国日报
Total No. of Word Types:3 640 Total No. of Word Types:3 470
Total No. of Word Tokens:18 816 Total No. of Word Tokens:18 853
1 176 China 1 215 air
2 174 said 2 215 said
3 161 Beijing 3 191 pollution
4 138 air 4 176 Beijing
5 119 pollution 5 141 smog
6 96 Chinese 6 119 China
7 75 alert 7 86 environmental
8 73 government 8 80 coal
9 67 red 9 71 haze
10 64 officials 10 71 PM
11 64 smog 11 65 quality
12 52 environmental 12 64 year
13 52 city 13 58 cities
14 48 coal 14 46 percent
15 45 people 15 40 city
表1  高频词排序结果
图1  《纽约时报》“China”索引行列表
图2  《中国日报》“China”索引行列表
纽约时报 中国日报
Total No. of Collocate Types:71 Total No. of Collocate Types:89
Total No. of Collocate Tokens:144 Total No. of Collocate Tokens:222
Rank Freq Freq(L) Freq(R) Stat Collocate Rank Freq Freq(L) Freq(R) Stat Collocate
1 20 20 0 1.43723 the 1 31 31 0 1.33571 the
2 13 13 0 6.46966 toxic 2 15 15 0 1.31681 of
3 12 12 0 2.90132 s 3 10 10 0 2.34998 s
4 10 10 0 1.29933 of 4 8 8 0 1.9705 for
5 6 6 0 2.20038 on 5 8 8 0 3.89972 an
6 3 3 0 2.23317 an 6 7 7 0 2.26167 with
7 2 2 0 0.23317 that 7 6 6 0 1.42457 on
8 2 2 0 5.50619 severe 8 6 6 0 0.2612 in
9 2 2 0 6.50619 poisonous 9 6 6 0 0.04775 and
10 2 2 0 3.23317 over 10 5 5 0 1.49084 The
11 2 2 0 5.28379 outdoor 11 5 5 0 3.45431 heavy
12 2 2 0 5.09115 national 12 5 5 0 5.19128 cold
13 2 2 0 2.23317 its 13 5 5 0 5.45431 against
14 2 2 0 4.28379 hazardous 14 4 4 0 4.99488 improve
15 2 2 0 1.61541 have 15 4 4 0 6.13239 cleaner
16 2 2 0 1.7513 from 16 3 3 0 5.23192 worsening
17 2 2 0 7.09115 foul 17 3 3 0 3.13239 reduce
18 2 2 0 5.09115 Embassy 18 3 3 0 3.95181 national
19 2 2 0 6.09115 battle 19 3 3 0 6.45431 dirty
20 2 2 0 4.92122 bad 20 3 3 0 3.79135 control
21 2 2 0 2.28379 about 21 3 3 0 4.86935 bad
表2  “air”的搭配词列表
纽约时报 中国日报
Total No. of Collocate Types:37 Total No. of Collocate Types:72
Total No. of Collocate Tokens:74 Total No. of Collocate Tokens:152
Rank Freq Freq(L) Freq(R) Stat Collocate Rank Freq Freq
(L)
Freq(R) Stat Collocate
1 14 14 0 2.03118 the 1 24 24 0 1.57512 the
2 12 12 0 2.67089 of 2 10 10 0 1.34049 of
3 5 5 0 6.82116 heavy 3 9 9 0 4.91095 heavy
4 3 3 0 1.92665 that 4 6 6 0 6.06296 thick
5 3 3 0 2.00985 s 5 6 6 0 5.64792 severe
6 2 2 0 4.87774 toxic 6 5 5 0 0.60681 in
7 2 2 0 1.75673 for 7 4 4 0 6.74103 fighting
8 2 2 0 2.62982 by 8 3 3 0 1.64792 with
9 2 2 0 6.02975 bad 9 3 3 0 -0.32936 to
10 2 2 0 6.39232 As 10 3 3 0 1.39053 that
11 1 1 0 4.87774 worst 11 3 3 0 4.94748 recent
12 1 1 0 -0.84472 to 12 3 3 0 1.03321 on
13 1 1 0 2.07039 this 13 3 3 0 6.64792 combat
14 1 1 0 6.61471 thick 14 3 3 0 1.7531 by
15 1 1 0 7.19967 Thick 15 2 2 0 5.74103 without
16 1 1 0 1.01976 The 16 2 2 0 4.15606 winter
17 1 1 0 5.61471 tackle 17 2 2 0 0.77755 The
18 1 1 0 8.19967 struggles 18 2 2 0 5.47799 possible
19 1 1 0 5.61471 severe 19 2 2 0 6.47799 lingering
20 1 1 0 8.19967 pervasive 20 2 2 0 0.57914 for
21 1 1 0 6.19967 Over 21 2 2 0 5.74103 choking
表3  “smog”的搭配词列表
纽约时报 中国日报
Total No. of Cluster Types:31 Total No. of Cluster Types:34
Total No. of Cluster Tokens:52 Total No. of Cluster Tokens:87
Rank Freq Cluster Rank Freq Cluster
1 7 Environmental Protection 1 25 Environmental Protection
2 6 environmental protection 2 10 environmental protection
3 4 environmental advocates 3 5 environmental issues
4 2 environmental degradation 4 4 Environmental Monitoring
5 2 environmental movement 5 4 Environmental Sciences
6 2 environmental officials 6 3 environmental monitoring
7 2 environmental policy 7 3 environmental problems
8 2 environmental pollution 8 3 environmental watchdog
9 2 environmental regulations 9 2 environmental and
10 2 Environmental Research 10 2 environmental emergency
11 1 environmental advocacy 11 2 Environmentalprofessionals
12 1 environmental advocate 12 2 environmental watchdogs
13 1 Environmental Affairs 13 1 environmental agency
14 1 environmental agencies 14 1 environmental authorities
15 1 environmental agency 15 1 environmental awareness
16 1 environmental awareness 16 1 environmental cases
17 1 environmental campaigners 17 1 environmental cause
18 1 environmental consequences 18 1 environmental challenges
19 1 environmental crisis 19 1 environmental emergencies
20 1 environmental damage 20 1 Environmental experts
21 1 environmental hazards 21 1 environmental impact
22 1 environmental health 22 1 Environmental issues
23 1 environmental issues 23 1 environmental laws
24 1 environmental laws 24 1 environmental legal
25 1 environmental minister 25 1 environmental nonprofits
26 1 Environmental Pollution 26 1 environmental official
27 1 environmental regulation 27 1 environmental pollution
28 1 environmental researcher 28 1 environmental prediction
29 1 environmental scholars 29 1 Environmental Professionals
30 1 environmental state 30 1 Environmental protection
31 1 environmental transparency 31 1 Environmental protection
32 1 environmental regulations
33 1 Environmental Resources
34 1 environmental studies
表4  “environmental”的搭配短语列表
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