Please wait a minute...
北京第二外国语学院学报  2019, Vol. 41 Issue (4): 34-47    DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.239
语言学研究     
批评话语分析:批评与进展
郭松
中国社会科学院研究生院,102488
Critical Discourse Analysis: Critiques and Developments
Song Guo
Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 102488, China
 全文: PDF(1254 KB)   HTML
摘要:

批评话语分析因其批判的视角和强烈的社会关怀备受学界关注,同时也饱受批评与责难。本文首先探讨批评话语分析的核心思想“批评”,以及由此引发的学界对批评话语分析的批评和批评话语分析学者的回应。作为一门新兴学科,批评话语分析难免会存在一些问题与局限。然而,批评话语分析之所以能够具有如今的影响力,很重要的原因是其所持有的开放性——能够积极地去面对、回应这些批评。本文力图对批评话语分析的最新进展进行梳理,探寻批评话语分析如何在质疑声中发展完善。

关键词: 批评话语分析认知语言学语料库积极话语分析民族志学    
Abstract:

As a new discipline, critical discourse analysis (CDA) has made remarkable achievements, with more and more scholars devoting themselves to this interdisciplinary field of research worldwide. The major difference between CDA and other traditional discourse analysis approaches lies in the term “critical”, which presupposes researchers’ overt political positions and strong social concern. However, this presupposition has been questioned and deemed as problematic by many scholars who give priority to objectivity in research. This paper first explores the core concept of CDA, criticism, and points out CDA’s orientation to social problems. As a new discipline, CDA inevitably has some problems and limitations. However, one of the most important aspects of CDA is its openness. On this basis, this paper tries to sort out the latest developments in CDA. This paper discusses scholars’ criticisms of CDA in detail, together with CDA practitioners’ responses. Informed by diverse disciplines and theories, CDA does not provide a unified and systematic analytic framework. Scholars’ critiques have been targeted at both CDA’s theories and methods, specifically roles played by researchers and participants, linguistic theories employed, text analysis, data selection, context, etc. Some criticisms can be attributed to the different epistemological stances held by researchers and their different research traditions and backgrounds. Others like selective interpretation of researchers and participants’ reaction to texts are common problems in arts and humanities. However, problems and limitations are inevitable in the early stage of any discipline. When viewed more positively, it indicates great potential for CDA’s future development. Subsequently, this paper discusses new developments in CDA, namely corpus-based CDA, cognitive CDA, ethnography-informed CDA and positive discourse analysis (PDA). As responses to the problems presented previously by scholars, these developments not only enrich CDA’s analytic tools but also enhance its interpretive power, rendering its research results more convincing.

Key words: critical discourse analysis    cognitive linguistics    corpus    positive discourse analysis    ethnography
收稿日期: 2017-03-10 出版日期: 2019-11-27
PACS:  H030  
基金资助: 本文系国家社科基金项目“中国当代大众语篇中的篇际互文性研究”(项目编号:13CYY089)的阶段性研究成果
作者简介: 郭松,天津商业大学外国语学院,300134;中国社会科学院研究生院,102488;研究方向:话语分析、社会语言学。电子邮箱:simonguo200@sina.com
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
郭松

引用本文:

郭松. 批评话语分析:批评与进展[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2019, 41(4): 34-47.

Song Guo. Critical Discourse Analysis: Critiques and Developments. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(4): 34-47.

链接本文:

https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12002/j.bisu.239        https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2019/V41/I4/34

系统
策略
格式塔 比较 注意 视角
结构构型 图式化
框架 范畴化
隐喻
识别 侧重
扫描
梯度调整
定位 视点
指示
表1  识解操作与话语策略 (Hart, 2015)
[1] Baker P, Gabrielatos C, Khosravinik M, Krzyżanowski M, McEnery T & Wodak R . A useful methodological synergy? Combining critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics to examine discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK Press[J]. Discourse & Society, 2008,19(3):273~ 306.
[2] Barkho L . The role of internal guidelines in shaping news narratives:Ethnographic insights into the discursive rhetoric of Middle East reporting by the BBC and Al-Jazeera English[J]. Critical Discourse Studies, 2011,8(4):297~ 309.
doi: 10.1080/17405904.2011.601642
[3] Blommaert J. DiscourseA Critical Introduction[M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
[4] Chilton P . Missing links in mainstream CDA:Modules,blends and the critical instinct[M]//Wodak R & Chilton P. A New Agenda in (Critical) Discourse Analysis:Theory,Methodology and Interdisciplinarity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2005: 19~ 51.
[5] Chilton P & Wodak R . Preface[M]//Wodak R & Chilton P. A New Agenda in Critical Discourse AnalysisTheory,Methodology and Interdisciplinarity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2005: XI~ XII.
[6] Chouliaraki L & Fairclough N . Discourse in Late ModernityRethinking Critical Discourse Analysis[M]. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1999.
[7] Connerton P . Critical Sociology[M]. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976.
[8] Croft W & Cruse D A . Cognitive Linguistics[M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
[9] Fairclough N. Discourse and Social Change[M]. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992.
[10] Fairclough N . Critical Discourse Analysis:The Critical Study of Language[M]. London: Longman, 1995a.
[11] Fairclough N . Media Discourse[M]. London: Hodder Arnold Publication, 1995b.
[12] Fairclough N . Analysing Discourse:Textual Analysis for Social Research[M]. London: Routledge, 2003.
[13] Flowerdew J . Discourse in English Language Education[M]. London: Routledge, 2013.
[14] Fowler R . On critical linguistics [C]//Cadas-Coulthard C R & Coulthard M. Texts and Practices:Readings in Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge, 1996: 3~ 14.
[15] Gee J P . Discourse analysis:What makes it critical? [C]//Rogers R. An Introduction to Critical Discourse Analysis in Education. Mahwah,NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004: 19~ 50.
[16] Hall S . Encoding/decoding[C]//Hall S,Hobson D,Howe A & Willis P. Culture,Media,Language. London: Hutchinson, 1980: 129~ 138.
[17] Hammersley M . On the foundations of critical discourse analysis[J]. Language & Communication, 1997,17(3):237~ 248.
[18] Hart C . Critical Discourse Analysis and Cognitive Science:New Perspectives on Immigration Discourse[M]. Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
[19] Hart C . Discourse[C]//Dabrowska E & Divjak D. Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2015: 322~ 346.
[20] Koller V . Metaphor and Gender in Business Media Discourse:A Critical Cognitive Study[M]. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
[21] Krzyżanowski M . Ethnography and critical discourse analysis:Towards a problem-oriented research dialogue[J]. Critical Discourse Studies, 2011,8(4):231~ 238.
doi: 10.1080/17405904.2011.601630
[22] Luke A . Beyond science and ideology critique:Developments in critical discourse analysis[J]. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 2002,22:96~ 110.
doi: 10.1017/S0267190502000053
[23] Martin J R . Positive discourse analysis:Solidarity and change[J]. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses, 2004,49:179~ 202.
[24] McFarland K . Strengthening critical discourse analysis:The babybook revisited[EB/OL]. cw.routledge.com/textbooks/reli/resources/LAP_McFarland_2006.pdf, 2015-08-21.
[25] Rogers R . An introduction to critical discourse analysis in education [C]//Rogers R. An Introduction to Critical Discourse Analysis in Education. Mahwah,NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004: 1~ 18.
[26] Stubbs M . Whorf's children:Critical comments on critical discourse analysis (CDA) [C]//Ryan A & Wray A. Evolving Models of Language. Clevedon:Multilingual Matters, 1997: 100~ 116.
[27] van Dijk T A . Multidisciplinary CDA:A plea for diversity [C]//Wodak R & Meyer M. Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London:SAGE, 2001: 95~ 120.
[28] van Leeuwen T . Three models of interdisciplinarity [C]//Wodak R & Chilton P. A New Agenda in (Critical) Discourse Analysis:Theory,Methodology and Interdisciplinarity. Amsterdam:John Benjamins, 2005: 3~ 18.
[29] Verschueren J . Predicaments of criticism[J]. Critique of Anthropology, 2001,21(1):59~ 81.
doi: 10.1177/0308275X0102100104
[30] Widdowson H G . Discourse analysis:A critical view[J]. Language and Literature, 1995,4(3):157~ 172.
doi: 10.1177/096394709500400301
[31] Widdowson H G . Reply to Fairclough:Discourse and interpretation:Conjectures and refutations[J]. Language and Literature, 1996,5(1):57~ 69.
doi: 10.1177/096394709600500106
[32] Widdowson H G . Review article:The theory and practice of critical discourse analysis[J]. Applied Linguistics, 1998,19(1):136~ 151.
doi: 10.1093/applin/19.1.136
[33] Widdowson H G . Text,Context,Pretext:Critical Issues in Discourse Analysis[M]. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004.
[34] Wodak R . Mediation between discourse and society:Assessing cognitive approaches in CDA[J]. Discourse Studies, 2006,8(1):179~ 190.
doi: 10.1177/1461445606059566
[35] 陈振明 . 论法兰克福学派社会批判理论的形成及其特征[J]. 社会学研究, 1990,5(6):106~ 113.
[36] 李素玲 . 批评性语篇分析:发展概况及应用前景[J]. 山东外语教学, 2004,23(5):23~ 26.
[37] 田海龙 . 批评性语篇分析在中国:借鉴与发展[J]. 中国社会语言学, 2009(2):1~ 8.
[38] 田海龙 . 批评话语分析精髓之再认识——从与批评话语分析相关的三个问题谈起[J]. 外语与外语教学, 2016,33(2):1~ 9.
[39] 辛斌 . 批评性语篇分析:问题与讨论[J]. 外国语, 2004,27(5):64~ 69.
[40] 许力生 . 话语分析面面观——反思对批评话语分析的批评[J]. 浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版), 2013,43(1):135~ 143.
[41] 朱永生 . 积极话语分析:对批评话语分析的反拨与补充[J]. 英语研究, 2006,4(4):36~ 42.
[1] 巩雪先,王晓红,任晓霏. 基于语料库的翻译汉语介词使用特征研究[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2019, 41(1): 56-66.
[2] 田海龙. 批评话语分析的一种标杆性尝试——《“学雷锋活动”历史变迁的话语研究》评介[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2018, 40(6): 103-109.
[3] 刘宁. 基于语料库的中美媒体关于中国雾霾报道的对比研究 ——以批评话语分析为视角[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2018, 40(5): 37-53.
[4] 黄立鹤. 言语行为理论与多模态研究——兼论多模态(语料库)语用学的逻辑[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2017, 39(3): 12-30.
[5] 黄立波. 基于专门用途语料库的翻译研究综述[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2017, 39(2): 70-82.
[6] 李德超 杨晓琳. 基于语料库的“more and more”及其触发环境研究:词汇触发理论的视角[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2017, 39(1): 116-126.
[7] 李 洋 王少爽. 基于文献计量的中国语料库口译研究评述[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2016, 38(5): 71-83.
[8] 程焕福 李媛媛. 基于认知语言学的多义词意义习得实证研究——以over及其合成词和动词短语为例[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2016, 38(2): 42-58.
[9] 郭桂杭 梁 倩. 从CRISIS探究美国经济状况——基于语料库的CRISIS研究[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2015, 37(2): 1-.
[10] 李 丽. 基于认知解析的商务词语搭配教学[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2015, 37(10): 73-.
[11] 李美霞, 焦瑷珲.
英汉逻辑结果程式语语义韵对比研究
[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2014, 36(8): 1-.
[12] 陈 佳. 论英汉运动事件的有界与无界词化模式和句子建构[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2014, 36(6): 22-.
[13] 胡春雨. 基于商务英语语料库的RATE搭配特征研究[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2014, 36(2): 6-.