北京第二外国语学院学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (2): 42-54.DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.057

• 语言学研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

英语“情态副词+DP”的合法性解析——兼谈其汉语对应表达

孔  蕾   

  1. 孔蕾,曲阜师范大学外国语学院
  • 收稿日期:2016-05-09 出版日期:2017-04-30 发布日期:2018-03-19
  • 作者简介:孔蕾,曲阜师范大学外国语学院,273165,研究方向:对比语言学、语义学。电子邮箱:skytkong@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    本文为全国高校外语教学科研项目“语用化和词汇化:英汉语用标记对比研究”(项目编号:2014SD0038A)成果。本文为作者在“曲阜师范大学中国语言文学博士后流动站”合作研究的部分成果。

An Inquiry into the Well-formedness Conditions of English “EPI-MB+DP” Construction and its Chinese Equivalent

KONG Lei   

  1. School of Foreign Languages, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165, China
  • Received:2016-05-09 Online:2017-04-30 Published:2018-03-19

摘要: 认识类情态副词作用于命题,表达对命题的主观确定程度。但英语中,这类副词却常与DP组合,作用于DP,而非命题。本研究探讨英语“情态副词+DP”结构的合法性条件。研究认为,在“情态副词+DP”的语义解释中,表层的DP实际关联一个命题,这是支撑“情态副词+DP”结构合法的深层语义条件;英语关系从句是“情态副词+DP”成立的句法前提,它在语言使用经济性原则和转喻机制的推动下在表层实现为DP;此外,从语义匹配角度而言,情态副词表达认知不确定性,与之组合的命题内容(表层为DP)也需要具有与之匹配的“不确定性”,这是“情态副词+DP”合法的另一语义条件。在上述分析的基础上,研究还对比分析了相同的概念语义在汉语中的编码问题,审视了英汉语在句法—语义界面上不同的工作机制。研究发现,汉语不存在英语关系从句的这样的固定句法结构,故无法借助转喻机制使用DP代替命题表达的概念语义。

关键词: 情态副词, DP, 类型迁移, 句法基础, 语义匹配

Abstract: Epistemic modal adverbs normally function as propositional operators. However, it has been observed that such adverbs can apparently modify the subpropositional material DPs. This study inquires into the well-formedness conditions of English “epistemic modal adverb + DP”(EPI-MB+DP for short) construction. The article first demonstrates that modal adverbs modifying DPs only take scope over those DPs, then explains how a type entry for modal adverbs allows them to compose with type DP intensions. It finds that DP in the construction undergoes type shifting, i.e. changing from a phrase to a property-type expression before being modified by epistemic modal adverbs, with DP taking the same meaning as a proposition does. It also finds that the proposition can be realized as a relative clause, which underlies “EPI-MB +DP”, where DP becomes a surface form through the mechanism of metonymy. In terms of semantic compatibility, since EPI-MB expresses uncertainty, it requires the DP (with its associated proposition) to match the uncertainty, which is another well-formedness condition for “EPI-MB+DP” construction. The paper also investigates the Chinese encoding of “EPI-MB+DP” construction, and finds that Chinese does not have the syntactic device of relatives to encode the semantic relation specified by English EPI-MB+DP, hence no syntactic mechanism for the Proposition-to-DP metonymy. As a result, such English DPs can only be realized as propositional clauses in Chinese.

Key words: epistemic modal adverbs, DP, type shifting, syntactic form, semantic compatibility

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