Please wait a minute...
北京第二外国语学院学报  2019, Vol. 41 Issue (3): 61-73    DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.225
语言学研究(二语习得研究专栏 主持人:徐锦芬)     
二语习得“以写促学”的理据及其路径
李绍鹏1,杨连瑞2
1. 上海外国语大学,200083
2. 中国海洋大学,266100
The Theoretical Basis and Path for “Writing to Learn” in SLA
Shaopeng LI1,Lianrui YANG2
1. Shanghai International Studies University, Shanghai 200083, China
2. Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
 全文: PDF(1366 KB)   HTML
摘要:

从二语发展的过程论视角来看,二语写作可以在二语发展过程中增加学习者对语言输入的注意,促进二语新知识的创造以及语言形式和意义的共同发展,加快假设检验和语言自动化的发展过程。从“以写促学”的路径看,读后续写的方法将语言理解与产出紧密结合,缩短了输入与输出之间的距离,产生协同效应即语言的产出与理解趋于一致,通过将理解和产出交互结合的方式逐渐缩短了语言理解与产出之间的差距,进而有效促学。本文尝试从学习写作和以写促学的关系、对输入的注意和吸收控制、二语新知识的创造、语意和形式兼顾以及对反馈的处理和假设检验方面分析二语写作和二语发展的界面,旨在推动二语习得研究和二语写作研究的交叉融合,以期为二语写作教学提供可资借鉴的启示。

关键词: 二语写作二语发展以写促学读后续写二语写作教学二语习得    
Abstract:

From the perspective of second language developing process, second language writing can facilitate second language development (SLD) by increasing second language learners’ attention to language input, promoting the creation of new knowledge of second language and the co-development of language form and meaning, accelerating the process of hypothesis testing and automation of second language. From the perspective of the path in which “writing to learn” can be realized, continuation task can shorten the distance between second language input and output by combining second language understanding and production, resulting in the collaboration effect, which means the production is becoming more consistent with the understanding of second language. It can gradually bridge the gap between second language understanding and output, thus facilitate second language learning by solving the problem of asymmetry between understanding and production. This article aims to explore second language writing—SLD interfaces from the perspectives of the relationship between “learning to write” and “writing to learn”, noticing input and shaping intake, creation of new second language knowledge, giving consideration to both meaning and form, processing and responding to feedback and hypothesis testing, trying to integrate the studies of second language acquisition (SLA) with second language writing and provide some suggestions for the teaching of second language writing.

Key words: L2 writing    SLD    writing to learn    continuation task    L2 writing teaching    SLA
收稿日期: 2017-05-09 出版日期: 2019-08-14
PACS:  H315  
基金资助: 本文为上海外国语大学校级一般项目“二语写作语篇连贯性动态发展研究”(2015114025);上海市I类高峰学科(外国语言文学)建设项目的阶段性成果
作者简介: 李绍鹏,上海外国语大学,200083,研究方向:二语习得、外语教学。电子邮箱:shaopengli@shisu.edu.cn|杨连瑞,中国海洋大学外国语学院教授,博士生导师,266100,研究方向:二语习得、外语教学。电子邮箱:larryyang@126.com
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
李绍鹏
杨连瑞

引用本文:

李绍鹏,杨连瑞. 二语习得“以写促学”的理据及其路径[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2019, 41(3): 61-73.

Shaopeng LI,Lianrui YANG. The Theoretical Basis and Path for “Writing to Learn” in SLA. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(3): 61-73.

链接本文:

https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12002/j.bisu.225        https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2019/V41/I3/61

图1  二语发展的宏观过程(Housen & Pierrard,2005)
图2  二语发展的宏观过程和次过程(Williams,2012)
[1] Adams R . L2 output,reformulation and noticing:Implications for IL development[J]. Language Teaching Research, 2003,7(3):347~ 376.
[2] Ellis N. Implicit and explicit SLA and their interface[C]//Sanz C & Leow R. Implicit and Explicit Language Learning: Conditions,Processes,and Knowledge in SLA and Bilingualism. Washington,DC: Georgetown University Press, 2011: 37~ 56.
[3] Ellis R . The differential effects of three types of task planning on the fluency,complexity,and accuracy in L2 oral production[J]. Applied Linguistics, 2009,30(4):474~ 509.
[4] Ellis R & Yuan Fangyuan. The effects of planning on fluency,complexity,and accuracy in second language narrative writing[J]. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 2004,26(1):59~ 84.
[5] Ellis R & Yuan Fangyuan. The effects of careful within-task planning on oral and written task performance [C]//EllisR. Planning and Task Performance in a Second Language. Amsterdam:John Benjamins, 2005: 167~ 192.
[6] Housen A & Kuiken F. Complexity,accuracy,and fluency in second language acquisition[J]. Applied Linguistics, 2009,30(4):461~ 473.
[7] Housen A & Pierrard M. Investigating instructed second language acquisition [C]//Housen A & Pierrard M. Investigations in Instructed Second Language Acquisition. Berlin:Mouton de Gruyter, 2005: 1~ 27.
[8] Izumi S & Bigelow M. Does output promote noticing and second language acquisition?[J]. TESOL Quarterly, 2000,34(2):239~ 278.
[9] Kuiken F & Vedder I. Cognitive task complexity and written output in Italian and French as a foreign language[J]. Journal of Second Language Writing, 2008,17(1):48~ 60.
[10] Kuiken F & Vedder I. Task complexity and linguistic performance in L2 writing and speaking:The effect of mode[C]//Robinson P. Second Language Task Complexity:Researching the Cognition Hypoconfproc of Language Learning and Performance. Philadelphia/Amsterdam:John Benjamins, 2011: 91~ 104.
[11] Manchón R M. Writing to learn the language:Issues in theory and research[C]//Manchón R M. Learning-to-Write and Writing-to-Learn in An Additional Language. Amsterdam:John Benjamins, 2011: 61~ 82.
[12] Manchón R M . L2 Writing Development:Multiple Perspectives[M]. Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, 2012.
[13] Nassaji H & Tian Jun . Collaborative and individual output tasks and their effects on learning English phrasal verbs[J]. Language Teaching Research, 2010,14(4):397~ 419.
[14] Niu Ruiying . Effect of task-inherent production modes on EFL learners’ focus on form[J]. Language Awareness, 2009,18(3~4):384~ 402.
[15] Ortega L . Exploring Interfaces between Second Language Writing and Second Language Acquisition[R]. Spain:University of Murcia, 2009-05-20~22.
[16] Pichette F, de Serres L & Lafontaine M . Sentence reading and writing for second language vocabulary acquisition[J]. Applied Linguistics, 2012,33(1):66~ 82.
[17] Polio C, Fleck C & Leder N . “If I only had more time”:ESL learners’ changes in linguistic accuracy on essay revisions[J]. Journal of Second Language Writing, 1998,7(1):43~ 68.
[18] Qi D S & Lapkin S . Exploring the role of noticing in a three-stage second language writing task[J]. Journal of Second Language Writing, 2001,10(4):277~ 303.
[19] Robinson P. Criteria for classifying and sequencing pedagogic tasks [C]//Mayo G & Pilar M D. Investigating Tasks in Formal Language Learning. Clevedon,Avon,UK:Multilingual Matters, 2007: 7~ 27.
[20] Sachs R & Polio C . Learners’ uses of two types of written feedback on a L2 writing revision task[J]. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 2007,29(1):67~ 100.
[21] Skehan P. A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning[M]. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
[22] Swain M. Communicative competence:some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development[C]//Gass S & Madden C. Input in Second Language Acquisition. Rowley,MA:Newbury House, 1985: 235~ 253.
[23] Swain M. Focus on form through conscious reflection[C]//Doughty C & Williams J. Focus on Form in the Classroom Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998: 64~ 81.
[24] Swain M. Languaging,agency and collaboration in advanced second language proficiency [C]//Byrnes H. Advanced Language Learning:The Contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky. London,UK:Continuum, 2006: 95~ 108.
[25] Swain M & Lapkin S . Problems in output and the cognitive processes they generate:A step towards second language learning[J]. Applied Linguistics, 1995,16(3):371~ 391.
[26] Swain M & Lapkin S . Talking it through:Two French immersion learners’ response to reformulation[J]. International Journal of Educational Research, 2002,37(3~4):285~ 304.
[27] Toth P D . Processing instruction and a role for output in second language acquisition[J]. Language Learning, 2006,56(2):319~ 385.
[28] Truscott J . The effect of error correction on learners’ ability to write accurately[J]. Journal of Second Language Writing, 2007,16(4):255~ 272.
[29] Wang Chuming & Wang Min . Effect of alignment on L2 written production[J]. Applied Linguistics, 2015,36(5):503~ 526.
[30] Williams J . The potential role(s)of writing in second language development[J]. Journal of Second Language Writing, 2012,21(4):321~ 331.
[31] Yang Luxin & Zhang Ling . Exploring the role of reformulations and a model text in EFL students’ writing performance[J]. Language Teaching Research, 2010,14(4):464~ 484.
[32] 姜琳, 陈锦 . 读后续写对英语写作语言准确性、复杂性和流利性发展的影响[J]. 现代外语, 2015,38(3):366~ 375.
[33] 李绍鹏 . 二语写作发展中的个体差异研究[J]. 语言教学与研究, 2015(6):27~ 34.
[34] 王初明 . 学相伴用相随——外语学习的学伴用随原则[J]. 中国外语, 2009,6(5):53~ 59.
[35] 王初明 . 读后续写——提高外语学习效率的一种有效方法[J]. 外语界, 2012(5):2~ 7.
[36] 王初明 . 读后续写何以有效促学[J]. 外语教学与研究, 2015,47(5):753~ 762.
[37] 王初明 . 以“续”促学[J]. 现代外语, 2016,39(6):784~ 793.
[38] 王初明, 牛瑞英, 郑小湘 . 以写促学——一项英语写作教学改革的试验[J]. 外语教学与研究, 2000,32(3):207~ 212.
[39] 王俊菊 . 国内二语写作过程研究的现状剖析[J]. 山东外语教学, 2013(5):7~ 11.
[40] 郑超 . 以写促学: 英语“写长法”的理念与操作[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 2004.
[1] 王淼. 二语写作句法复杂性研究的新发展[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2019, 41(2): 81-99.
[2] 张晓东,任娇娇. 二语即时作文高低分组词汇丰富性对比研究[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2018, 40(4): 41-52.