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北京第二外国语学院学报  2019, Vol. 41 Issue (5): 38-52    DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.243
语言学研究(二语习得研究专栏 主持人:蔡金亭)     
附带习得中二语学习者对语块与单词外围注意的对比研究
周正钟
广东培正学院外国语学院,510830
A Comparison Study of Second Language Learners’ Peripheral Attention on Chunks and Single Words in Incidental Acquisition
Zhengzhong Zhou
Guangdong Peizheng College, Guangzhou 510830, China
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摘要:

注意是二语习得的必要条件,也是习得目标语言形式的第一步。本研究以非英语专业大学一年级学生为受试,考察在附带习得过程中二语学习者对文中的语块和单词所给予的外围注意水平及它们之间的差异。研究发现:(1)从总体上看,附带习得中二语语块与单词外围注意的总体水平偏低,且两者之间具有显著性差异;(2)二语学习者的阅读水平与语块外围注意水平和单词外围注意水平之间的关系极弱,可以认为不相关;(3)不同频率语块之间呈现低频语块外围注意水平﹥中频语块外围注意水平﹥高频语块外围注意水平的趋势;不同频率单词之间呈现中频单词外围注意水平﹥低频单词外围注意水平﹥高频单词外围注意水平的趋势;两者之间的趋势存在明显差异。本研究有助于人们了解“注意”这一重要心理现象以及“主要注意”与“外围注意”在二语输入中的作用,揭示在阅读接触过程中“外围注意”的规律性和复杂性,对语块和词汇教学也有借鉴意义。

关键词: 附带习得语块单词外围注意二语习得    
Abstract:

Attention is an essential prerequisite for second language acquisition and is required as the first step in the acquisition of target linguistic forms. Taking freshmen of non-English majors as subjects, this study explores the level of the peripheral attention given by L2 learners to the chunks and single words in the text while directing focal and major attention to the reading tasks and the difference between them. The findings show that (1) L2 learners’ peripheral attention on chunks and single words in reading is generally inefficient and there is significant difference between them; (2) L2 learners’ reading score has weak correlation with the level of the peripheral attention given to the chunks and single words; (3) there is a trend for the peripheral attention to vary according to different chunk frequencies — the level of the peripheral attention on low-frequency chunks is higher than that on mid-frequency chunks, and the level of the peripheral attention on the mid-frequency chunks is higher than that on high-frequency chunks; there is also a trend for the peripheral attention to vary according to different single word frequencies — the level of the peripheral attention on mid-frequency chunks is higher than that on low-frequency single words, and the level of the peripheral attention on low-frequency single words is higher than that on high-frequency single words; and the two trends are obviously different. This study not only enriches our understanding of “noticing” (an important psychological phenomenon) and the roles of focal and peripheral attention in second language input by clarifying the laws and complexity of noticing in reading, but also gives pedagogical suggestions for the learning of chunks and single words.

Key words: incidental acquisition    chunks    single words    peripheral attention    second language aquisition (SLA)
收稿日期: 2017-03-20 出版日期: 2020-01-15
PACS:  H0-059  
基金资助: 本文是2018年广东省高等教育教学改革项目“二语语块习得为导向的高效外语教学模式的探索”(项目编号:630);广东培正学院重点科研项目“我国大学生学习英语语块的多维研究和应用”(项目编号:20pzxmzd12)
作者简介: 周正钟,广东培正学院外国语学院,510830,研究方向:应用语言学与外语教育。电子邮箱:24088zhou@163.com
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引用本文:

周正钟. 附带习得中二语学习者对语块与单词外围注意的对比研究[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2019, 41(5): 38-52.

Zhengzhong Zhou. A Comparison Study of Second Language Learners’ Peripheral Attention on Chunks and Single Words in Incidental Acquisition. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(5): 38-52.

链接本文:

https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12002/j.bisu.243        https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2019/V41/I5/38

组别 语块 频率(每百万) 单词 频率(每百万)
高频组 engage in
relative to
fall into
2 170
1 353
896
testimony
scenario
intriguing
3 272
2 442
1 043
中频组 aspire to
receptive to
inclination to(do)
246
209
184
inherently
stereotype
proactive
689
572
484
低频组 group together
take aim at
be disposed to
34
30
22
nuanced
aversion
extenuating
314
264
35
平均频率 572 1 013
表1  目标语块和单词分组
项目 平均数 标准误差 最高分 最低分 数量
语块 14.918 5.530 28 4 61
单词 9.803 4.460 20 2 61
表2  语块与单词外围注意总体水平的描述统计
变量 检验值=21.6
t df 显著性
(双尾)
平均
差异
95%差异数的置信区间
上限 下限
语块外围注意总成绩 —9.438 60 0.000 —6.682 —5.266 —8.098
单词外围注意总成绩 —20.657 60 0.000 —11.797 —10.654 —12.939
表3  语块与单词外围注意总体水平单一样本t检验
变量 配对差异值
t df 显著性
(双尾)
平均差异 95%差异数的置信区间
上限 下限
语块外围注意总成绩—
单词外围注意总成绩
7.531 60 0.000 5.114 6.473 3.756
表4  语块与单词外围注意总体水平配对样本t检验
斯皮尔曼相关性 对比组 相关系数 显著性
信息匹配题成绩vs.语块外围注意水平 —0.128 0.324
信息匹配题成绩 vs.单词外围注意水平 —0.054 0.679
表5  阅读成绩与语块外围注意水平和单词外围注意水平之间的相关分析
组别 平均数 标准误差 数量
高频语块 3.918 2.185 61
中频语块 4.738 2.435 61
低频语块 6.426 2.901 61
表6  不同频率的语块外围注意水平的描述统计
变异来源 语块频率 平均差异 标准错误 显著性
组间 高频语块vs. 中频语块 —0.820 0.324 0.203
高频语块vs. 低频语块 —2.508 0.365 0.000
中频语块vs. 低频语块 1.689 0.403 0.000
表7  单因素方差分析的组内对比检验
组别 平均数 标准误差 数量
高频单词 2.590 2.148 61
中频单词 3.902 2.336 61
低频单词 3.344 1.879 61
表8  不同频率的单词外围注意水平的描述统计
变异来源 单词频率 平均差异 标准错误 显著性
组间 高频单词vs. 中频单词 —1.311 0.386 0.004
高频单词vs. 低频单词 —0.754 0.386 0.151
中频单词vs. 低频单词 0.557 0.386 0.354
表9  单因素方差分析的组内对比检验
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