北京第二外国语学院学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (1): 1-13.DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.2016.008

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反义关系词转喻用法的认知阐释

陈新仁   

  1. 陈新仁,南京大学外国语学院
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-31 出版日期:2016-02-15
  • 作者简介:陈新仁,南京大学外国语学院教授、博士生导师,210023,研究方向:语用学理论与应用、语言政策与语言规划、外语教育与外语教学。电子邮箱:cxr3354182@163.com

A Cognitive Account of the Metonymic Usages of Opposites

CHEN Xinren   

  1. Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2016-01-31 Online:2016-02-15

摘要: 转喻认知及其语言表征是当代认知语言学的一个热门话题,相关研究成果可谓汗牛充栋。现有研究文献充分描述了转喻认知背后的各种事物“邻接”关系,并系统考察了这些类型的转喻认知在语言系统表征以及言语行为实施方面的体现,深入分析了转喻使用的动因以及效果等等。本研究聚焦现有文献中鲜有触及的反义关系型转喻,考察这类转喻认知方式形成的认知基础,探讨这类特殊转喻的认知方式、特点及隐喻化现象。笔者认为,基于对比关系形成的部分—整体关系是此类转喻用法形成的认知基础,特定语境下相关部分或属性的认知凸显是发生转喻的前提条件,相关转喻用法背后有可能发生概念隐喻化或语法隐喻化过程,产生不同的认知效果,而汉语自身的构词特点为上述认知过程提供了便利。本研究在理论上可以为反义关系词汇转喻用法的认知机制提供阐释,在应用上为此类汉语词汇的教学提供参考和启示。

关键词: 转喻, 邻接关系, 部分—整体关系, 反义关系

Abstract:

Metonymic cognition as well as its linguistic representation is a hot topic in contemporary cognitive linguistics. Existing research has supplied ample discussion of all sorts of contiguity relations underlying metonymic cognition and systematic description of corresponding linguistic representation and speech act realization, and revealed the motivation and effects of metonymy use. The present study addresses an under-explored type of metonymy, i.e. metonymy realized by adjective opposites with regard to its cognitive foundation, cognitive mode and features, and metaphorization. It will be argued that the part-whole relation based on opposition gives rise to the metonymic usage of adjective opposites, and the derived metonymic usages may undergo both conceptual and grammatical metaphorization. Specifically, metonymies represented by adjective opposites involve either the substitution of the whole of an object for part of it (or the other way round), or that of a property of the object for the object itself; thus, they are cognitively motivated. Yet, in actual communication, the emergence of such metonymies depends on the context at the moment. Unless a part or a property of the object becomes salient in the current discourse, can it be used to refer to the whole object, or be substituted by the object. In addition, since shape and property stand for different aspects of an object from process and result, the differences in the focus with which the cognizers perceive them will yield different cognitive results, giving rise to nominalization or other grammatical-metaphoric processes. The metonymization as well as subsequent conceptual and grammatical metaphorization of the adjective opposites is not unique to Chinese language or cognition, but the combinational power of its compounding does facilitate the processes. This study will shed light on the cognitive mechanism of the metonymic usages of the opposites and provide implications for the teaching of adjective opposites.

Key words: metonymy, contiguity, part-whole relation, opposition

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