## 时间指示语与身份话语建构——基于回归前后香港施政报告的研究

,1, ,2

1.华南师范大学外国语言文化学院,广州 510631

2.广东外语外贸大学,广州 510420

## Temporal Deixis and Discourse Construction in Identity

,1, ,2

1. South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China

2. Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510420, China

 基金资助: 国家社会科学基金项目“粤港澳大湾区公共话语的偏离性与融合性研究”(20BYY062)教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目“跨文化语篇能力研究”(16JJD740006)

Abstract

Identity research has been a hot spot in many fields, and identities have been found to be constructed often through the manipulative use of language. This research conducts a comparative analysis of the 22 annual Policy Addresses (PA) of the Hong Kong Government (both the British Hong Kong Government and the Hong Kong SAR Government) that were delivered during the pre- and post-transition period to reveal how three kinds of temporal deixis are used as discursive strategies to construct social identities. Among the major findings are the following three observations: (1) past temporal deixis helps construct the positive Hong Kong history in the pre-transition PA but conversely constructs the negative Hong Kong colonized history in the post-transition PA; (2) future temporal deixis contributes to the construction of a transient and uncertain future for Hong Kong in the pre-transition PA and conversely a positive Hong Kong future and a positive China in the post-transition PA; (3) absolute temporal deixis “1997” in the pre-transition PA constructs a negative “1997 event” and conversely in the post-transition PA a positive “reunion with China”. The paper concludes that temporal deixis is a discursive strategy in the manipulative construction of Hong Kong identities, which provides a new perspective for the study of temporal deixis and enriches the study of identity from the perspective of sociolinguistics and pragmatics.

Keywords： temporal deixis ; identity ; discourse construction ; Hong Kong Policy Address ; Critical Discourse Analysis

Wang Jialin, Chen Jianping. Temporal Deixis and Discourse Construction in Identity. Journal of Beijing InternaTional Studies University, 2020, 42(4): 56-67. DOI:10.12002/j.bisu.292

## 二、批评话语分析与身份的话语建构

### 三、时间指示语与香港人身份的建构

1997年香港回归中国,这是个具有划时代意义的事件,“1997年”属于话语中的绝对时间,不会因说话人的主观意志而发生变化。依据这个绝对时间,我们建立了回归前港英政府施政报告和回归后香港特区政府施政报告两个子语料库,探讨其中包含的过去和将来两类相对时间指示语如何与“正面的我们”和“负面的他们”形成相关,进而参与到香港人身份建构的过程中。

### 1. 过去时间指示语

1997年香港回归之前的11年间（1986—1996）,在港英政府发布的施政报告中,过去时间指示语都指向香港回归中国之前由英国管辖的这段历史,如例（1）~（2）。

- GDP has grown by 18% in real terms to US$23 800 per head. - New investment has grown by 31% in real terms. - Total visible exports have grown by 43% in real terms, and total exports of services have grown by 31%. - Our fiscal reserves have grown by 57% to total$151 billion.

- And, of course, the share of public spending has remained firmly below 20% of GDP. （选自1995PA(① PA指Policy Address,施政报告,下同。), p.8(② p.表示paragraph,段落,下同。)）

The first half of 1986 was marked by a strong recovery in Hong Kong’s domestic exports which have grown by 8% in real terms since the same period last. Domestic exports and re-exports to China continued to be affected by the tighter control on imports which were adopted by China in early 1985.（选自1986PA,p.14）

Hong Kong has finally broken free from the psychological constraints brought about by the colonial era. We should have the courage to set aside past modes of thought and plan Hong Kong’s long term future with new vision.（选自1997PA,p.3）

The rapid growth of our economy in the past two decades has been due mainly to our seizing the opportunities provided by the opening up of the Mainland.（选自2003PA,p.6）

### 2. 将来时间指示语

Plans are in hand to deal with this problem. The number of hospital beds will increase by no less than 50% in the coming decade.（选自1987PA,p.90）

We will do everything that is honorable and sensible to cooperate with China for the remaining thousand days of British rule.（选自1994PA,p.94）

In the coming years, we will continue to consolidate the reforms we have already put in place and focus our attention on education and the changes we need to make to health care.（选自2000PA,p.26）

... we firmly believe that we and our next generation will create a more vibrant and prosperous Hong Kong. We will make a success of ‘One Country, Two Systems’ and accomplish the mission that history has entrusted to us in the course of the revival of our great nation.（选自2004PA,p.83）

### 3. 绝对时间指示语“1997”

1997年,中国对香港恢复行使主权,香港从英国殖民地变为中华人民共和国香港特别行政区,这在香港历史上具有划时代的意义。因此,探究“1997”这一绝对时间指示语在港英政府和特区政府的历次施政报告中的使用情况,分析它在身份话语建构中的作用,对本研究具有重要的作用。在利用AntConc软件对语料库进行检索后,笔者发现“1997”在回归前港英政府的施政报告中共出现了211次,但在回归后特区政府的施政报告中却仅出现了36次。之所以存在这样巨大的差异,是因为1997年对港英政府和特区政府具有不同的意义。对于前者而言,1997年标志着曾经不可一世的日不落帝国在香港殖民统治的终结;而对后者而言,1997年则标志着重归祖国怀抱的美好时代的开端。在回归前港英政府施政报告子语料库中,“1997”这一绝对时间指示语往往出现在以下这样的例句中：

And we must develop and consolidate our governmental institutions so that they can tackle effectively our immediate problems, be ready for the changes which will take place in 1997. （选自1988PA,p.185）

When the name of Hong Kong is mentioned nowadays, far too many people probably think either of 1997 or of Vietnamese boat people. We must do what we can to project a more balanced and more positive image of this exciting city.（选自1989PA,p.37）

Nevertheless, I recognise that civil servants are worried about the future payment of their pensions after 1997.（选自1993PA,p.123）

On 1 July 1997, Hong Kong was reunited with China.（选自1997PA,p.2）

The percentage of primary students enjoying whole-day schooling has risen from 19% in 1997 to 32% this year.（选自1999PA,p.64）

That said, our financial infrastructure is more robust than it was in 1997.（选自2008PA,p.18）

## 参考文献 原文顺序 文献年度倒序 文中引用次数倒序 被引期刊影响因子

Ainsworth S & Hardy C.

Critical discourse analysis and identity:Why bother?

[J]. Critical Discourse Studies, 2004,1(2):225~259.

Berger P L & Luckmann T.

The Social Construction of Reality

[M]. New York:Doubleday & Company, 1966.

Burr V.

Social Constructionism

[M]. 2nd ed. New York:Routledge, 2003.

de Fina A. Group identity,narrative,and self-representations[M] //de Fina A, Schiffrin D & Bamberg M. Discourse and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006: 351~375.

Fairclough N. Critical Discourse Analysis:The Critical Study of Language[M]. New York: Longman Publishing, 1995.

Levinson S C. Pragmatics[M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Martin D C.

The choices of identity

[J]. Social Identities, 1995,1(1):5~20.

van Dijk T A.

Principles of critical discourse analysis

[J]. Discourse and Society, 1993,4(2):249~283.

Wodak R.

Pragmatics and critical discourse analysis:A cross-disciplinary inquiry

[J]. Pragmatics & Cognition, 2007,15(1):203~225.

Wodak R, de Cillia R, Reisigl M, et al. The Discursive Construction of National Identity[M]. Hirsch A & Mitten R (Trans.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1999.

Woodward K.

Identity and Difference

[M]. London:SAGE, 1997.

[J]. 中国外语, 2014(2):32~38.

[J]. 山东科技大学学报(社会科学版), 2006,8(2):1~7.

[J]. 浙江外国语学院学报, 2015(3):8~13.

“我”、“我们”的使用与个人性格

[J]. 语言教学与研究, 2001(4):75~80.

[J]. 解放军外国语学院学报, 2012,35(4):12~15,106.

[J]. 天津外国语大学学报, 2016,23(5):13~17.

[J]. 浙江师范大学学报(社会科学版), 2007,32(6):88~91.

[J]. 广东外语外贸大学学报, 2010,20(3):44~49.

[J]. 现代外语, 1994(2):6~12.

/

 〈 〉