北京第二外国语学院学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (1): 81-97.DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.375

• 语言学研究(制图理论专栏 主持人:司富珍) • 上一篇    下一篇

“有+数量结构”中“有”的句法制图分析

李富强1(), 司富珍2()   

  1. 1.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    2.北京语言大学语言学系,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-21 出版日期:2022-02-28 发布日期:2022-03-24
  • 作者简介:李富强,博士,中国科学院大学外语系,100049,研究方向:理论语言学、句法制图研究。电子邮箱: lifuqiang@ucas.ac.cn
    司富珍,博士,北京语言大学语言学系教授,博士生导师,100083,研究方向:理论语言学、生物语言学与脑科学等。电子邮箱: sifuzhen@blcu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金2018年度重大项目子课题“境内生成语法汉语成果”(18ZDA291);北京语言大学2018年度重大基础研究专项项目(18ZDJ06);中国科学院大学外语系2021年度科研项目(111700M000)

A Cartographic Analysis of “you” in the “you+NumP” Construction

Li Fuqiang1(), Si Fuzhen2()   

  1. 1. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    2. Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2018-11-21 Online:2022-02-28 Published:2022-03-24

摘要:

“有+数量结构”常出现在句子的末尾,“有”可以表达数量或程度,在句子中可以被省略且不影响句子的合法性。吕叔湘(1999)、刘月华等(2001)、温锁林(2012)从语言事实和语用的角度对“有+数量结构”进行了详细的描述和论证,为从新的视角开展相关研究提供了基础。本文从句法制图理论“一个特征,一个中心语”的角度出发,以“他吃了有三大碗”和“他走了有三天了”中的“有+数量结构”的句法生成过程为例,试图确定“有”和“数量结构”的语类范畴,并对其句法特征进行句法制图。研究发现:“有+数量结构”中的“有”属于功能性成分,作为焦点标记基础生成于短语内部的焦点投射中心语位置;“数量结构”作为程度短语,生成于短语内部焦点投射的补语位置,受到焦点标记“有”的允准。

关键词: “有+数量结构”, 句法制图, 程度短语投射, 短语内部焦点

Abstract:

You” in the “you+NumP” construction, which mainly occurs at the end of a sentence, can indicate number or degree, and can be omitted without violating the sentence’s grammaticality. From the perspectives of language facts and pragmatics, Lv’s (1999), Liu et al.’s (2001), and Wen’s (2012) analyses on the “you+NumP” construction shed light on a new viewpoint for further discussion. This article follows a cartographic approach (one feature, one head), takes sentences “ta chi-le you san-da-wan (he ate three bows’)” and “ta zou-le you san-tian-le (he left three days)” to illustrate the categorial features of “you” and “you+NumP”, and attempts to draw maps as precise and detailed as possible of “you+NumP” configuration. The results reveal that the “you” under discussion is a functional category that is base generated in the internal clause focus position; NumP, as a degree phrase (DegP), is the complement of FocP in the internal clause, licensed by the focus marker “you”.

Key words: you+NumP” construction, syntactic cartography, DegP, internal clause focus

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