北京第二外国语学院学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (5): 83-103.DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.356

• 语言学研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

英语中动句历史发展的内部机制及动因

冯爽(), 尹洪山()   

  1. 青岛科技大学,青岛 266061
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-09 出版日期:2021-10-31 发布日期:2021-12-16
  • 作者简介:冯爽,青岛科技大学外国语学院,266061,研究方向:历时语言学、句法学、英汉语言对比。电子邮箱: sfeng@qust.edu.cn
    尹洪山,青岛科技大学外国语学院教授,266061,研究方向:二语习得、应用语言学。电子邮箱: yinhs@qust.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    2018年度教育部人文社会科学研究基金青年项目“各类型中动句的语法化过程及演变动因研究”(18YJC740014);2019年度教育部人文社会科学规划基金项目“二语句法操作的界面研究”(19YJA740074)

The Mechanisms and Triggering Factors in the Historical Development of English Middles

Feng Shuang(), Yin Hongshan()   

  1. Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, China
  • Received:2019-10-09 Online:2021-10-31 Published:2021-12-16

摘要:

学界一直比较关注英语中动句的多视角共时研究,重点多集中在带副词修饰成分的类型上。迄今为止的共时研究还未能很好地界定中动句的核心特征并从句法上给出解释和论证。本文将多种类型的中动句纳入统一的研究范畴,考察该句式的起源和发展,并从导致其出现的内部机制和动因上探究其核心特征。结果显示,英语中动句的发展和很多印欧语系中动句并不是同一路径,反身代词在使用上的消退与中动句的起源并没有本质联系。英语中动句起源于作格句的重新分析,“will”的语义变化和情态动词的重新分析是导致其产生的两个决定性因素。本文将历时和共时研究相结合,对各个环节进行关联研究,提出情态性是中动句的核心特征,情态动词或者副词修饰成分在句法结构上起到确认和限制情态性特征的作用。另外,由于情态算子的确认方式发生改变,难易类副词在后期也出现在中动句中,并通过类推机制扩展到事件类副词等其他类型。

关键词: 中动句, 重新分析, 类推, 情态算子, 作格句

Abstract:

A large number of synchronic studies of English middles have arisen in the field of linguistics from multiple perspectives, in which the focus is mainly on the type that has adverbial modifications. However, to date, these studies have neither reached consensus on the defining properties of middles, nor have they accounted for them adequately in terms of the syntactic structure. This paper focuses on several types of English middles, and discusses their origins and historical development. Moreover, it aims to identify the defining property of middles in terms of the mechanisms and triggering factors in their development. The result reveals that the development of English middles follows a path that is different from that of other Indo-European languages. The historical disappearance of reflexives in the English language did not essentially result in the origin of middles. The change of meaning of will and, more importantly, the reanalysis of modal auxiliaries in the sixteenth century, triggered the reanalysis of ergatives as middles. This paper proposes that modality is the defining property of middles from a diachronic perspective. Modals or adverbs appear in middles in order to identify and restrict the interpretation of the modal operator in the T position. Next, the development of middles can be characterized in terms of the change in the manner of specifying the modal operator in the T position, from the direct merge of a modal in T as a basic strategy to the covert movement of a facility adverb or event adverb, which is a later development.

Key words: middles, reanalysis, analogy, modal operator, ergatives

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