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北京第二外国语学院学报  2021, Vol. 43 Issue (3): 73-90    DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.338
语言学研究     
英语句法分区的形成及其对附加语位置影响的历时发展考察
刘晓林()
重庆三峡学院 404100
A Diachronic Investigation of the Formation of the Syntactic Layers in English and Their Influence on the Syntactic Positioning of Adjuncts
Liu Xiaolin()
Chongqing Three Gorges University, Chongqing 404100, China
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摘要:

本文简要考察了英语句法中的CP域、TP域和vP域形成的历时发展过程,发现古英语的CP域较发达,该域强大的话题化特征能够吸引名词、动词、副词、形容词、介词词组等各种成分前移;古英语的TP域还在形成和发展之中,使用尚不稳定,随着中古英语助动词的形成和发展,TP域进一步稳定并削弱了强大的CP域,非限定动词已经难以进行V-to-I和V-to-C移位;vP域从古至今发生了较大的变化,主要是轻动词的v节点从屈折形式变成了显性独立的词汇形式,VP的补足语变得多样化。中古英语TP域的发展使英语的句法特点由格允准变成位置允准,同时句法分为“语用—语法—语义”三域。这些发展使附加语(副词和介词词组)句法准入受到了位置和语义的限制,并使附加语的语序变得更有理据,后者在自己合宜的语义位置“塑造”句法和贡献语义。

关键词: 句法分区CP域TP域vP域附加语语法化    
Abstract:

This paper presents a brief diachronic investigation of the origins of the CP, TP, and vP layers in the English syntactic structure. The findings have revealed that the CP layer in Old English was highly sophisticated, and that its strong topic-feature aspect could cause various elements such as nouns, verbs, adverbs, and prepositional phrases to move to the front, while the TP layer in Old English remained in the formation phase and was not fixed at that stage. With the formation and development of auxiliary verbs in Middle English, the further fixation of TP layer weakened the strong CP layer, and non-finite verbs could no longer undergo V-to-I and V-to-C movements. The vP layer experienced drastic changes from Old English to Modern English: the light verb v changed from inflectional forms to independent lexical forms, and the complementation patterns of vPs became diversified. The emergence of TP layer gave rise to the change from case-licensing grammar to position-licensing grammar, and the linear order of “pragmatics-grammar-semantics”. These properties imposed restrictions on the licensing of adjuncts (adverbs and prepositional phrases) in syntactic slots, and provided motivations for the word order of adjuncts. In addition, the adjuncts added semantics to the syntax in their compatible slots.

Key words: syntactic layers    CP layer    TP layer    vP layer    adjuncts    grammaticalization
收稿日期: 2017-10-26 出版日期: 2021-08-24
PACS:  H0-09  
基金资助: 2017年度国家社会科学基金项目“英语句法类型的演化研究”(17BYY032);2017年度重庆市教育委员会人文社会科学规划项目“英语句法类型的转变研究”(17SKJ158)
作者简介: 刘晓林,重庆三峡学院,404100,研究方向:历史语言学、对比语言学。电子邮箱: 2234814234@qq.com
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引用本文:

刘晓林. 英语句法分区的形成及其对附加语位置影响的历时发展考察[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2021, 43(3): 73-90.

Liu Xiaolin. A Diachronic Investigation of the Formation of the Syntactic Layers in English and Their Influence on the Syntactic Positioning of Adjuncts. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2021, 43(3): 73-90.

链接本文:

https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12002/j.bisu.338        https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2021/V43/I3/73

句法域 句法性质 容纳的功能核心
CP 语用域 语力(force)、焦点、话题、限定性
TP 语法域 时、语气、体、一致、语法格
vP 语义域 论元结构、事件结构
表1  现代英语的句法域、性质和功能核心
句法域 准入的副词及其相互语序
CP 言内行为类>评价类>传信类>场景设立类>焦点类>主语指向类
TP 认识类>否定句子类>时间类>体类>主语态度类
vP 空间类>时间类>纯范围类>方式类>程度类>方式—范围类>频度类>重复类>完结类>再次类
表2  现代英语附加语准入句法的位置及其相互语序(“>”表示“先于”)
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