北京第二外国语学院学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (2): 64-75.DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.328

• 外国文学研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

德意志自由的第一缕气息——克莱斯特《日耳曼尼亚》中的民族与战争观初探

曾悦()   

  1. 南昌航空大学外国语学院 330063
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-04 出版日期:2021-04-15 发布日期:2021-04-15
  • 作者简介:曾悦,博士,南昌航空大学外国语学院,330063,研究方向:德国近现代文学、德国近现代文艺理论、德国近现代思想史。电子邮箱: zengyueaile@163.com

“The First Breath of German Freedom”: Preliminary Research on the Views of Nation and War in Kleist’s Germania

Zeng Yue()   

  1. School of Foreign Languages, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063, China
  • Received:2018-08-04 Online:2021-04-15 Published:2021-04-15

摘要:

1809年,德国戏剧家及中篇小说家克莱斯特为自己计划出版的《日耳曼尼亚》杂志撰写了一系列政治文章,目的是要为德意志的反拿破仑战争作舆论宣传。这批政治文章是特殊历史背景下的特殊产物,需要在政治历史的框架下进行解读。本文结合《日耳曼尼亚》成文时的政治局势和历史事件,从地缘政治、敌我划分及“总体战”策略等角度出发,揭示了《日耳曼尼亚》中提出的实现德意志民族身份认同的方法及巩固民族认同的途径,认为在克莱斯特那里,民族认同与解放战争构成了德意志民族自由的关键因素。上述结论能够帮助人们更好地理解克莱斯特的作者身份,同时正确认识克莱斯特的民族思想及其作品展现出的特殊风格。

关键词: 克莱斯特, 日耳曼尼亚, 民族认同, 地缘政治, 敌我划分, 总体战

Abstract:

In 1809, Kleist, a German dramatist and novelist, wrote a series of political articles for the magazine Germania, which he had been planning to publish since the end of the 1800s, with the purpose of providing propaganda for the Anti-Napoleonic Wars that were started by the German countries and patriots. These articles are specific outcomes of a particular historical background, namely national wars against foreign aggression; thus, these articles should be interpreted against this political and historical background. By discussing the political situations and the historical events that were taking place when Germania was written, this article reveals different ways of realizing German national self-identity and methods for its consolidation that were presented in Germania according to three aspects: 1) The modern theory of geopolitics posited by Friedrich Ratzel in the second half of the nineteenth century; 2) the system of friend-enemy distinction from the beginning of twentieth century proposed by Carl Schmitt; and 3) the anticipation of the theory of total war raised by Erich Ludendorff during the First World War. The article concludes that, in Kleist’s Germania, national self-identity and the liberation war combined to create the two essential factors for the national freedom of the German people. Thus, this article can assist researchers and readers to have a better understanding of Kleist’s authorship, his views of the nation and the particular style expressed in his works.

Key words: Kleist, Germania, national self-identity, geopolitics, friend-enemy distinction, total war

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