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北京第二外国语学院学报  2020, Vol. 42 Issue (6): 44-67    DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.308
语言学研究(语言类型学专栏 主持人:金立鑫)     
跨语言名词性领属结构的编码方式
葛娜娜()
上海应用技术大学外国语学院,上海 201418
Cross-Linguistic Attributive Possession Encoding Devices
Nana Ge()
School of Foreign Languages, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418, China
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摘要:

本文从跨语言视角考察了名词性领属结构的编码方式。根据是否需要额外添加语素来表达领有者和被领有者的关系,本文将名词性领属结构的编码方式分为两类:简单方式和复杂方式。简单方式使用简单并置和音调变化,复杂方式使用领格附缀、领属代词、领属形容词以及领属分类词。研究发现:如果一种语言有可让渡与不可让渡的区分,那么一般不可让渡的领属关系倾向于使用附缀形式,而可让渡的领属关系通常需要添加其他语素。领属附缀以后缀居多,因为前缀的使用会增大信息处理难度。有些语言也用其他格形式(如处所格、与格以及伴随格)来表达领属结构。领有者的特征决定了领属分类词中领有者分类词的使用频次最低。核心名词的领有方式与内在特征密切相关,加上经济性原则制约,大部分语言不再区分领有关系分类词和被领有者分类词。

关键词: 名词性领属结构编码方式附缀领属分类词    
Abstract:

This article investigates attributive possession encoding devices from a cross-linguistic perspective. The analysis groups attributive possession encoding devices into two categories: “simple method” and “complex method”, according to whether additional morphemes need to be added to express the relationship between possessor and possessed. The “simple method” category includes juxtaposition and tone inflection. The “complex method” includes possessive affixes, which are the most common method for expressing possession in the world’s languages. Languages that do not use affixes to express possessive structure typically use possessive pronouns or possessive adjectives. The findings are as follows: if a language encodes a distinction between alienability and inalienability, inalienable possessive relations are generally shown with an affix, while alienable possessive relations usually add other morphemes. Among possessive affixes, the majority are suffixes, most likely because the use of prefixes makes information processing more difficult. Some languages also use other methods to express possessive structure, such as locative, dative, and comitative case on nouns. The least frequent type of possessive is possessor classifiers, which are determined by the characteristics of the possessor. In most languages, there is no distinction between the possessive relation classifier and the possessum classifier. This is for two reasons: one is the close relationship between the possessum’s intrinsic features and its possessed ways; the other is the restriction of economy principle.

Key words: attributive possession    encoding device    affix    possessive classifier
收稿日期: 2019-03-27 出版日期: 2020-12-30
PACS:  H030  
基金资助: 本文为上海应用技术大学“博士启动资金项目”(39120K196036-A06);文科工程项目“领属范畴的类型学研究”的研究成果(391100190016036-A21)
作者简介: 葛娜娜,上海应用技术大学外国语学院,201418,研究方向:语言类型学、外语教学。电子邮箱: genn2007@163.com
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引用本文:

葛娜娜. 跨语言名词性领属结构的编码方式[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2020, 42(6): 44-67.

Nana Ge. Cross-Linguistic Attributive Possession Encoding Devices. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2020, 42(6): 44-67.

链接本文:

https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12002/j.bisu.308        https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2020/V42/I6/44

序号 类型 数量
1 附从标志 98
2 附核标志 78
3 双重标志 22
4 无标志 32
5 其他 6
总计 236
表1  跨语言领属结构的标志位置分布
分类词种类 数量
没有分类词 125
2种分类词 94
3~5种分类词 20
大于5种分类词 4
总计 243
表2  领属分类词(WALS数据)
语义 分类词 用例
普通 iyu 汽油、锤子、纸张、肥皂、桌子等
可食用1 yung 酱料:芒果酱、土豆泥、木薯泥
可食用2 tɑ̈’ma 鸡蛋、米饭、汤
可食用3 empa 带果肉没有榨汁的水果
可食用4 yo’/are 肉(加工或生的):鱼肉、鸡肉、牛肉
可饮用/液体 uku 液体:咖啡、牛奶、血液等
动物 yiki 动物(家畜等)
交通工具 kanowa 船、卡车、飞机、汽车等
打猎工具 ko 矛、箭、叉
乐器 ntyën 提琴、吉他、笛子等
身体彩绘 yanoë 彩绘
衣物 po’ 项链、T恤
容器 mara’pi 葫芦等
人造光 uyung 灯笼、手电筒
单独物品种类 ëwi’ 房子
tipi’ 花园
ichi’ 吊床
拷贝型量词
(repeater)(①又称反响型量词,指与被限定的名词或动词形式相同(或部分相同)的量词。)
pata 村庄
chistë 短柄小斧
wata 吹箭筒
wa’to
表3  Panare的领属分类词(Aikhenvald,2000:128)
Semantics Classifier
To be consumed A1 drunk/sucked/licked me-
A2 eaten/chewed/smoked ’e-
Not to be consumed B1 D is related to R(①D 指被领有者(possessed),R指领有者(possessor)。) ’e-
B2 D is owned by R we- ~ o-
表4  斐济语的领属分类词(Milner,1956:65~66)
分类词类型 使用频次 规模 语义
领有者分类词 很少 生命性/人类
被领有者分类词 生命性、形状、大小等
领有关系分类词 中等 名词可以被拥有的方式
领有关系/被领有者分类词 中等 二者相加
表5  领属分类词类型比较
图1  世界语言领属分类词的分布(Aikhenvald,2000:148)
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