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北京第二外国语学院学报  2020, Vol. 42 Issue (2): 76-90    DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.276
外国文学研究     
欲望、剩余快感与梦境:《麦克白》的心理分析
陈必豪()
北京大学外国语学院,100871
Desire, Surplus-enjoyment and Dreams: A Psychoanalytic Reading of Macbeth
Chen Bihao()
School of Foreign Languages, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
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摘要:

许多传统批评家将《麦克白》中的超自然意象与命运划等号,忽略了该剧的心理现实层面。本文将拉康和齐泽克的心理分析理论应用于对《麦克白》中超自然女巫形象的解读,得出如下结论:剧中的三个女巫其实是麦克白内心欲望的修辞,女巫的预言不过是麦克白无意识内容的转喻。不同版本中女巫形象的不确定性为打开新的文本阐释空间提供了可能性。麦克白在女巫身上看到的是麦克白夫人目光的注视,他的欲望是透过麦克白夫人的欲望建立起来的。麦克白企图用填补内心欲望空白的方式来回应“大他者”的缺失,却在权力的角逐中迷失自我、无法自拔。麦克白夫人沉湎于丈夫王权的“剩余快感”,可是当麦克白夫人的欲望无法被剩余快感所满足时,她也注定丧失理智、走向毁灭。莎士比亚通过超自然人物形象的描述和梦境的运用,揭示了悲剧人物麦克白夫妇丰富的心理世界,彰显了人文主义关怀。

关键词: 《麦克白》心理分析女巫欲望无意识剩余快感威廉•莎士比亚    
Abstract:

Many traditional critics tend to relate the supernatural images in Macbeth with the three Fates and thus ignored the dimension of psychological reality in the play. By applying Lacanian and Žižekian psychoanalysis in the interpretation of the supernatural images of the three witches in Macbeth, this paper concludes that the three witches are no more than the rhetoric of Macbeth’s inner desire, and their prophecy is the metonymy of Macbeth’s unconscious. Different witch imagery in different versions of Macbeth allow new interpretations of the play. Macbeth saw Lady Macbeth’s gaze on the three witches, and his desire was established through Lady Macbeth’s desire. Macbeth tried to respond to the emptiness of ‘the Other’ by filling up the emptiness of his inner desire but he lost himself in the pursuit of power. Lady Macbeth indulged herself in ‘surplus-enjoyment’ derived from Macbeth’s supreme royal power. However, when Lady Macbeth failed to satisfy her desire with surplus-enjoyment, she was doomed to lose her reason and perish. By describing the supernatural images and Macbeth’s uncanny dreams, William Shakespeare displays Macbeth’s and Lady Macbeth’s profound inner worlds, which reveal his concern about humanism to a greater extent.

Key words: Macbeth    psychoanalysis    witches    desire    unconscious    surplus-enjoyment    William Shakespeare
收稿日期: 2018-09-09 出版日期: 2020-08-14
PACS:  I106  
作者简介: 陈必豪,北京大学外国语学院,100871,研究方向:英美文学与文学理论。电子邮箱: 394393524@qq.com
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引用本文:

陈必豪. 欲望、剩余快感与梦境:《麦克白》的心理分析[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2020, 42(2): 76-90.

Chen Bihao. Desire, Surplus-enjoyment and Dreams: A Psychoanalytic Reading of Macbeth. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2020, 42(2): 76-90.

链接本文:

https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12002/j.bisu.276        https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2020/V42/I2/76

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