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北京第二外国语学院学报  2019, Vol. 41 Issue (4): 3-19    DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.227
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请求作为伤面子行为的会话佐证
于国栋
中国海洋大学外国语学院, 622100
Conversational Practices as Evidence for Taking Request as a Face Threatening Act
Guodong Yu
Ocean University of China, Qingdao 622100, China
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摘要:

面子是交际者在言谈应对过程中考虑的社会因素之一,当交际者执行伤面子行为的时候更是如此。作为社会行为的请求在本质上是一种侵害交际对方消极面子的起始行为,那么请求者是否会在话轮设计方面有具体的考量和体现?区别于现有的传统语用学对执行伤面子行为语用策略的探讨,本文采用会话分析的研究方法,探究请求者在执行相邻对前件时展现出来的侵害交际对方消极面子的具体言语表现。这些言语表现是交际者在交际过程中执行请求的会话常规,如通过讲述困难而获得对方的给予或帮助、通过前序列确认请求前提的存在、权衡请求行为背后的损益关系、对请求作出解释、以给予的方式执行请求等。这些会话常规是请求者对请求行为损害被请求者消极面子属性的自我适应,是请求者对请求行为社会属性的构建。从会话分析视角研究面子体现的是面子的互动观和步骤过程法。

关键词: 请求消极面子会话常规步骤法会话分析    
Abstract:

Face is a deep-rooted concept for interactants to consider in interactions, and it is even more inportant when interactants are involved in a face-threatening act, such as request. Request could threaten the face of the requester and/or the requestee, considering the fact that a request could infringe or impose on the freedom of action of the requestee and threaten the requestee’s negative face while the requestee’s refusing a request could damage the requester’s positive face. Many pragmatic researches have probed into the strategies that communicators could adopt to do face threatening acts. The present research, taking conversation analysis as the research methodology, investigates the conversational practices that interactants could adopt to make requests. For example, requests could be accounted for by the requester, turns can be designed to discount the cost to the requestee, something could be given in return, and pre-sequences might be used to delay the occurrence of a request or even trigger an offer. The conversational practices that a requester adopts sufficiently explain that requests are endogenously understood by both the requester and requestee as a face-threatening act which is a dispreferred initiative action in nature. The present research is based on the interactional concept of politeness and the procedural approach to face.

Key words: request    negative face    conversational practice    procedural approach    discourse analysis
收稿日期: 2018-04-08 出版日期: 2019-11-27
PACS:  H030  
基金资助: 本文为国家社科基金项目“言语行为的会话分析研究”(项目编号:15BYY84)的阶段性成果
作者简介: 于国栋, 中国海洋大学外国语学院教授,博士生导师,622100,研究方向:会话分析。电子邮箱:guodong_yu@hotmail.com
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于国栋

引用本文:

于国栋. 请求作为伤面子行为的会话佐证[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2019, 41(4): 3-19.

Guodong Yu. Conversational Practices as Evidence for Taking Request as a Face Threatening Act. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(4): 3-19.

链接本文:

https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12002/j.bisu.227        https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2019/V41/I4/3

Agent of future action Beneficiary of future action
Proposal Self & Other Self & Other
Offer Self Other
Request Other Self
Suggestion Other Other
表1  给予、请求、建议的区别
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