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北京第二外国语学院学报  2019, Vol. 41 Issue (3): 74-87    DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.217
语言学研究(二语习得研究专栏 主持人:徐锦芬)     
汉—英—日三语词汇加工中的语言距离和二语效应
陈艳艳1,2,张萍2
1. 华南理工大学外国语学院,510641
2. 华南师范大学外国语言文化学院,510631
Linguistic Distance and L2 Effect on the L3 Lexical Processing of Chinese-English-Japanese Trilinguals
Yanyan CHEN1,2,Ping ZHANG2
1. School of Foreign Languages, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China
2. School of Foreign Studies, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
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摘要:

三语者掌握的语言可能有不同的距离。语言距离相近时,L3词汇加工更易受习得状态相似的L2词汇影响(二语效应)。但汉—英—日三语者的语言距离和二语效应更复杂,尚少有研究证据。本文采用同/异译词对(L3→L2)和同/异形词对(L3∩L1)的语义判断任务,考察汉—英—日三语者的L3词汇加工是否受到二语效应和语言距离的影响。结果显示,加工L3→L2同译词对的反应时显著增加、错误率稍稍降低,未见二语效应,而L3∩L1同形词对的反应时、错误率均显著降低,语言距离的作用显著。文章从二语效应、语言距离展开讨论,认为三语词汇教学须同时重视两者的语际影响。

关键词: L3→L2同译L3∩L1同形语际影响二语效应语言距离    
Abstract:

The languages used by a trilingual speaker can be of different linguistic distances. As for the trilinguals of closer linguistic distance, the L3 lexical processing is more significantly affected by the L2 lexical system due to the similarity of acquisition (L2 effect). Yet, the Chinese-English-Japanese (C-E-J) trilinguals encounter a more complex interactive relationship of linguistic distance and acquisition, for which there is still insufficient empirical evidence. This study employs semantic judgement tasks with word pairs of same/different L3→L2 translation and word pairs of same/different L3∩L1 orthography, so as to investigate whether and how the C-E-J trilinguals’ L3 lexical semantic processing is affected by L2 effect and linguistic distance. The results indicate that reaction times (RTs) and error rates (ERs) of L3→L2 congruent word pairs are significantly longer and slightly higher than those of the incongruent word pairs, showing no significant L2 effect; RTs and ERs of L3∩L1 orthographically similar word pairs are significantly shorter and lower than those of the orthographically different word pairs, which validates the dominant role of linguistic distance. The results are further discussed starting from the L2 effect and linguistic distance and the conclusion is drawn that close attention should be paid to the inter-lingual influence from both factors in the teaching of L3 vocabulary.

Key words: L3→L2 congruency    L3∩L1 similar orthography    cross-linguistic influence    L2 effect    language distance
收稿日期: 2018-09-20 出版日期: 2019-08-14
PACS:  H313.2  
基金资助: 本文为国家社科基金项目“中国英语学生词汇联想表征与语料库分布的句法—语义耦合研究”(15BYY176);广东省哲社科“十三五”规划项目“中国英语学习者“一带一路”词汇联想能力的测量与构建”(GD17XWW05)
作者简介: 陈艳艳,华南理工大学外国语学院,510641;华南师范大学外国语言文化学院,510631,研究方向:二语 / 三语习得。电子邮箱:cyyscut@163.com|张萍,华南师范大学外国语言文化学院教授,博士生导师,510631,研究方向:二语习得与加工、心理语言学。电子邮箱:blacrose@163.com
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引用本文:

陈艳艳,张萍. 汉—英—日三语词汇加工中的语言距离和二语效应[J]. 北京第二外国语学院学报, 2019, 41(3): 74-87.

Yanyan CHEN,Ping ZHANG. Linguistic Distance and L2 Effect on the L3 Lexical Processing of Chinese-English-Japanese Trilinguals. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 2019, 41(3): 74-87.

链接本文:

https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12002/j.bisu.217        https://journal.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2019/V41/I3/74

受试
类型
人数 年龄 L1 汉语 L2 英语 L3日语
统测 自评 方式 统测 自评 方式 统测 自评 方式
L3高水平 20 21~23 (母语) 6.15 家庭 CET4 4.20 课堂 N11 4.56 课堂
L3低水平 23 19~21 (母语) 6.65 家庭 CET4 3.91 课堂 / 3.04 课堂
表1  受试语言教育背景
类型 基础数据 词对示例
词对
数量
平均
笔画数
平均
熟悉度
平均
同形性
L3实验词 L2翻译词
同译 同形 15 24.8 6.3 6.8 返事 反応 reply
异形 15 21.2 6.1 4.2 カット 切る cut
异译 同形 15 26.4 6.3 6.2 基準 準則 standard rule
异形 15 20.4 6.0 3.6 過失 ミス fail miss
无关 60 23.5 6.1 6.0 お焼 託する bake rely
表2  实验词对的相关数据及示例
受试类型 同译词对 异译词对
反应时 错误率 反应时 错误率
L3低水平 1 015(157) 23.2(10.6) 933(167) 22.8(10.8)
L3高水平 927(110) 13.5(6.31) 855(79.7) 16.8(7.00)
表3  同译、异译词对的反应时(ms)与错误率(%)均值和标准差结果
受试类型 同形词对 异形词对
反应时 错误率 反应时 错误率
L3低水平 874(170) 14.50(10.40) 1 074(190) 31.50(17.30)
L3高水平 814(93.8) 6.23(5.69) 968(127) 24.10(12.90)
表4  同形、异形词对反应时(ms)与错误率(%)的均值和标准差结果
受试 同形同译 同形异译 异形同译 异形异译
类型 反应时 错误率 反应时 错误率 反应时 错误率 反应时 错误率
L3低水平 944 20.00 803 9.00 1 086 26.30 1 062 36.70
(176) (9.43) (132) (8.45) (157) (14.90) (222) (18.40)
L3高水平 866 8.99 762 3.48 988 18.00 948 30.10
(91.1) (5.17) (63.8) (4.87) (144) (10.50) (106) (12.40)
表5  同译性与同形性组合条件下词对反应时(ms)与错误率(%)的均值和标准差结果
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