北京第二外国语学院学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (6): 40-59.DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.2016.083

• 语言学研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

跨语言时—体的编码类型与认知理据

于秀金   

  1. 于秀金,曲阜师范大学外国语学院
  • 收稿日期:2016-05-09 出版日期:2016-12-31 发布日期:2018-03-20
  • 作者简介:于秀金,曲阜师范大学外国语学院教授、博士、硕士生导师,273165,研究方向:语言类型学、语法与语义。电子邮箱:yuxiujin888@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    本文为国家社会科学基金项目“平衡语种样本视阈下时—体范畴的类型与共性研究”(项目编号:15BYY174)的阶段性成果。

Tense-Aspect Encoding Types and Cognitive Motivation across Languages

YU Xiujin   

  1. College of Foreign Languages, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165, China
  • Received:2016-05-09 Online:2016-12-31 Published:2018-03-20

摘要: 以往研究常将时—体限定为语法化程度较高的形态语素,既无法对比用形态语素和非形态语素表达的时—体,也难以揭示不同语言时—体表达的隐性规律。本文将时—体看作功能范畴,描写了世界语言时—体的编码类型,探讨了时—体编码的倾向性及认知理据。研究发现如下:(1)在14个语系的78种语言中,时—体的编码主要包括词缀、功能词、助动词、音调、逆被动态及非词缀语素。很多语言不仅仅用一种时—体编码,可能以功能词或助动词为主而以词缀为辅,也可能以词缀为主而以功能词或助动词为辅,有些语言的时—体标记不与动词关联,而标记在名词、代词或NP/DP的其它成分上。(2)在倾向性上,不论VO还是OV语言,时—体词缀语素倾向用后缀;时—体功能词无论在VO还是OV语言中都倾向前置于动词;时—体助动词则受到限制,VO语言中倾向前置于动词,OV语言中倾向后置于动词。时—体功能词涉及到更多词类,比时—体助动词更普遍。(3)尽管时—体的跨语言编码呈多样性,但在用词缀、助动词、逆被动态及音调表达时—体的语言中,从编码方式与时—体意义的关系看,象似性认知原则起了重要的驱动作用。

关键词: 时, 体, 编码类型, 认知理据

Abstract: The previous studies always define tense-aspect as highly grammaticalized morphological morphemes, which not only fails to compare tense-aspect conveyed in both morphological morphemes and non-morphological morphemes but also can’t reveal the covert tendency of tense-aspect across languages. This paper, taking tense-aspect as functional category, describes various tense-aspect encoding types, tendency and cognitive motivation. The research results are as follows: (1) In the 78 languages of 14 language families, tense-aspect can be encoded through affix, particle, auxiliary, tone, antipassive and non-affix morpheme, but tense and aspect in many languages are not encoded only in one way. In some languages tense and aspect may be encoded mainly through particles or auxiliaries with affixes as supplement, while in other languages tense and aspect may be encoded mainly through affixes with particles or auxiliaries as supplement, and even in some other languages tense and aspect are not marked on the verbs but on the nouns and pronouns or the other elements of NP/DP. (2) In terms of the tendency, tense-aspect affixes tend to be suffixes either in VO or OV language type. Tense and aspect particles in either VO or OV languages tend to be positioned before the verbs, but the positions of tense and aspect auxiliaries are more limited, which tend to be positioned before the verbs in VO languages and to be positioned after the verbs in OV languages. Tense-aspect particles tend to be more popular than tense-aspect auxiliaries because particles cover more types of word class across languages. (3) Although tense-aspect encodings vary across languages, iconicity principle in cognition plays an important role in the relation between tense-aspect encodings and meanings in the languages in which tense and aspect are encoded through affix, auxiliary, antipassive and tone.

Key words: tense, aspect, encoding types, cognitive motivation

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