北京第二外国语学院学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (6): 25-39.DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.2016.065

• 语言学研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

从语气词“得了”看评价系统的体现方式

渠默熙   

  1. 渠默熙,上海师范大学对外汉语学院
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-04 出版日期:2016-12-31 发布日期:2018-03-20
  • 作者简介:渠默熙,上海师范大学对外汉语学院,200234,研究方向:功能语言学、篇章语法。电子邮箱:380466302@qq.com

Expression Forms of Evaluation System from the Modal Particle “Dele”

QU Moxi   

  1. International College of Chinese Studies, Shanghai Normal University,Shanghai 200234, China
  • Received:2016-03-04 Online:2016-12-31 Published:2018-03-20

摘要: 评价表达是评价者有意识、有目的地将评价活动所获取的结果借助一定的符号系统传达给别人的一种社交活动。因此,凡能够表明或隐含说话人或作者立场、情感、态度,传递人际功能的语言符号都属于评价范畴。现代汉语评价系统就是评价范畴内各级语言符号分层、有序构成的系统。本文以语气词“得了”为出发点,运用语料统计的方法,描写了评价系统在语言各个不同层次上的体现方式。在词汇层上,“得了”可与评注性副词、元话语、形容词交叠使用,为的是主观上的突显与强化,以表达说话人强烈的感情。在句法层上,评价系统与“得了”组配后有其特定的句法结构,并倾向于选择使役句式。评价系统也可以通过隐喻的方式得以表现,主要是情态隐喻和语气隐喻。

关键词: 得了, 词汇层, 句法层, 隐喻, 评价系统

Abstract: Evaluative expression is a social activity in which the evaluator conveys the evaluative results to others consciously and purposefully with the help of certain symbolic system. Therefore, all the language symbols which indicate or imply speakers’ standpoints, feelings, attitudes and deal with the relationship, such as vocabulary, syntactic structure and discourse, all belong to the category of evaluation. The modern Chinese evaluation system is an orderly system composed of sublevels of the language signs within the evaluation category. Based on the above re-definition and re-classification of the evaluation system within the framework of the Systemic Functional Linguistics, firstly the present work combines the methods of quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. Secondly, it collects statistics of language data, analyzes the expression forms of evaluation system at different levels of language field through the modal particle Dele(得了). At the level of vocabulary, “Dele(得了)” may be used alternately with evaluative adverbs, meta-language and adjectives to emphasize and reflect subjectively speaker’s strong feelings, emotions, attitudes and standpoints. At the level of syntax, the combination of evaluation system and Dele(得了) has its own sentence structure and in most cases tends to use causative sentence pattern. Evaluation system can also be expressed in the form of metaphor, mainly including modality metaphor and mood metaphor. To sum up, the evaluation system can be reflected variously at each level of language field. The use of different evaluative expression depends on the speaker’s attitudes, expressive habits, occasions, etc.

Key words: Dele, vocabulary, syntax, metaphor, evaluation system

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