北京第二外国语学院学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (3): 72-83.DOI: 10.12002/j.bisu.102

• 外国文学研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

“多余人”的后代或变体——论陀思妥耶夫斯基五大思想小说中西方派形象所体现的根基主义思想

万海松   

  1. 万海松,中国社会科学院外国文学研究所
  • 收稿日期:2016-05-09 出版日期:2017-06-15 发布日期:2018-03-19
  • 作者简介:万海松,中国社会科学院外国文学研究所,100732,研究方向:俄罗斯文学与文化。电子邮箱:wanhaisong@sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    本文系国家社科基金重大项目“东正教与俄罗斯文学研究”(项目编号:15ZDB092)的阶段性成果。

The Descendants or Variants of “Superfluous Man”:Dostoevsky’s Pochvennichestvo as Reflected in the Westernized Figures in His Five Ideological Novels

WAN Haisong   

  1. The Institute of Foreign Literature of CASS, Beijing 100732, China
  • Received:2016-05-09 Online:2017-06-15 Published:2018-03-19

摘要: 陀思妥耶夫斯基五大思想小说中的人物,即《罪与罚》中的拉斯柯尔尼科夫、《白痴》中的伊波利特、《群魔》中的斯塔夫罗金、《少年》中的维尔希洛夫和《卡拉马佐夫兄弟》中的伊凡•卡拉马佐夫,都属于以普希金诗体小说《叶甫盖尼•奥涅金》中同名主人公为前辈的“多余人”的后代或变体。这类“多余人”形象在陀思妥耶夫斯基小说中大多以激进的西方派面貌出现。奥涅金之类的“多余人”知识分子对真理和行动的渴望,以及他们经历憧憬与困惑却最终一事无成,其言行甚至危及传统与根基等典型的表面特征,为陀思妥耶夫斯基笔下一类年轻的西方派形象所继承,但他们最主要的、共同的精神特征是:受到欧洲资本主义文明和西方理性主义思潮的诱惑,脱离了本民族的文化土壤,在自己的祖国成为不仅无所事事、反而有损于俄国传统和文化根基之人,沦为思想上的漂泊者和人民的疏离者。对这类作为西方派的“多余人”形象爱恨交加的复杂情感,亦体现出陀思妥耶夫斯基本人的根基主义立场。

关键词: 陀思妥耶夫斯基, 五大思想小说, “多余人”形象, 根基主义思想

Abstract: In the history of Russian literature, the character type of “superfluous man” originates in A. Pushkin’s verse novel Yevgeniy Onegin. The westernized figures in F. Dostoevsky’s five key ideological novels, such as Raskolnikov in Crime and Punishment, Ippolit in The Idiot, Stavrogin in The Demons, Versilov in The Youth and Ivan Karamazov in The Brothers Karamazov,can be regarded as descendants or variants of “superfluous man”. This kind of “superfluous man” appears in Dostoevsky’s novels mainly as the radical westernizers. They inherit their spiritual father—Onegin’s typical characteristics, such as longing for truth and action at first, falling into confusion and existential boredom without a way out in the prime of life, and even jeopardizing the native people and homeland in the end. Besides these exterior features, Dostoevsky also reveals the immanent cause of their spiritual commonness. In Dostoevsky’s view, the father-and-sons of “superfluous man” as the elites of Russian intelligentsia are attracted by European civilizations and entirely enticed by the western rationalism, which are quite alien to traditional Russian culture, especially to the Russian Orthodoxy. Trusting in those foreign ideas leads to the radical westernizers’ alienation from the native people and traditions. They become spiritual wanderers in their hometown and even do harm to the cultural traditions of Russia. Dostoevsky’s idea of pochvennichestvo is clearly reflected in his complicated feelings of love and hate towards these westernizers as “superfluous man” in his five ideological novels.

Key words: Dostoevsky, five ideological novels, westernizers as “superfluous man”, pochvennichestvo

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